ଲିଥିୟମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
(Lithium ରୁ ଲେଉଟି ଆସିଛି)
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Lithium,  3Li
Lithium paraffin.jpg
Spectrum Lines of Li.png
Spectral lines of lithium
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ lithium, Li
Appearance silvery-white (shown floating in oil)
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈlɪθiəm/ li-thee-əm
Lithium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
H

Li

Na
heliumlithiumberyllium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 3
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 1 (alkali metals), s-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 2
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   alkali metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar) 6.94(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [He] 2s1
per shell
2, 1
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 453.69 K ​(180.54 °C, ​356.97 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 1615 K ​(1342 °C, ​2448 °F)
Density near r.t. 0.534 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 0.512 g/cm3
Critical point (extrapolated)
3223 K, 67 MPa
Heat of fusion 3.00 kJ/mol
Heat of 147.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.860 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1 ​strongly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.98
Atomic radius empirical: 152 pm
Covalent radius 128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 182 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for lithium
Speed of sound thin rod 6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 46 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 84.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 92.8 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Young's modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus 4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.6
CAS Number 7439-93-2
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Johan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolation William Thomas Brande (1821)
Most stable isotopes of lithium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
6Li 7.5% 6Li is stable with 3 neutrons
7Li 92.5% 7Li is stable with 4 neutrons
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.
| references

ଲିଥିୟମ (ଏହା ଗ୍ରୀକ ଶବ୍ଦ ଲିଥୋସ୍ / Lithosରୁ ଅସିଛିମାନେ 'ପଥର') ହେଉଛି ଏକ ନରମ, ରୂପା ଭଳି ଧଳା ଦେଖାଯାଉଥିବା ଧାତୁ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Liପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୩ ଅଟେ । ଏହା ଏତେ ନରମ ଯେ ଏହାକୁ ଛୁରିଦ୍ଵାରା ମଧ୍ୟ କଟା ଯାଇପାରିବ । ଏହା ଅନ୍ୟ ଧାତୁ ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ସବୁଠାରୁ ହାଲୁକା କିନ୍ତୁ ଏହା ସାନ୍ଧ୍ରତା (density) ଜଳର ଅର୍ଦ୍ଧେକ ଅଟେ । ( ବିଗ୍ ବ୍ୟାଙ୍ଗ୍‌ର ପ୍ରଥମ କ୍ଷଣରେ ତିଆରି ତିନୋଟି ଧାତୁ ଭିତରୁ ଲିଥିୟମ ଅନ୍ୟତମ । ଅନ୍ୟଦୁଇଟି ହେଲେ ଉଦଜାନହିଲିଅମ - ଜୋତିର୍ବିଦଙ୍କ ଅନୁସାରେ ଏହି ଦୁଇଟି ମୌଳିକର ପରିମାଣ ଲିଥିୟମ ଠାରୁ ଅନେକ ଗୁଣରେ ଅଧିକ । )

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ପରମାଣବିକ ସଂରଚନା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817

ପେଟାଲାଇଟ (Petalite - LiAlSi4O10), ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଲିଥିୟମ ରହିଥାଏ, ବ୍ରାଜିଲୀୟ ବୈଜ୍ଞାନିକ Jose Bonifacio de Andrade e Silva ୧୭୦୦ ଶତାବ୍ଦୀର ଶେଷ ଆଡକୁ ତାଙ୍କର ସ୍ଵୀଡ଼େନ ଗସ୍ତ ବେଳେ ଆବିଷ୍କାର କରିଥିଲେ । ଜୋହାନ ଅଗଷ୍ଟ ଆର୍ଫ୍ଵେଡ଼ସନ୍‌ ୧୮୧୭ରେ ଲିଥିୟମ ଆବିଷ୍କାର କରିଥିଲେ । Arfwedson found the new element within the minerals spodumene and lepidolite in a petalite ore (LiAl(Si2O5)2) that he was analyzing during a routine investigation of some minerals from a mine on the island Uto in Sweden. In 1818 Christian Gmelin was the first to observe that lithium salts give a bright red colour in flame. Both men tried and failed to isolate the element from its salts. The element was not isolated until William Thomas Brande and Sir Humphry Davy later used electrolysis on lithium oxide in 1818. Robert Bunsen and Matiessen isolated larger quantities of the metal by electrolysis of lithium chloride in 1855. Commercial production of lithium metal was achieved in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft through using electrolysis of molten lithium chloride and potassium chloride. It was apparently given the name "lithium" because it was discovered from a mineral while other common alkali metals were first discovered from plant tissue.

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Satellite images of the Salar del Hombre Muerto, Argentina
World production trend of Lithium

ଲିଥିୟମ ବହୁଳ ମାତ୍ରାରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର ହଉଥିଲେହେଁ ଏହା ପ୍ରକୃତିକ ଭାବେ ଏହାର ମୂଳ ରୂପରେ ମିଳିନଥାଏ । ଏହାର ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାଶୀଳ ଗୁଣ ଯୋଗୁଁ ଏହା ଏକ ବା ଏକାଧିକ ଅନ୍ୟ ମୌଳିକ ଓ ଯୌଗିକ ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସହ ବାନ୍ଧି ହୋଇ ରହିଥାଏ । ଖଣିଜ ପଦାର୍ଥରୁ ଏହା ଅତି ଅଳ୍ପ ପରିମାଣରେ ମିଳିଥାଏ; spodumene (LiAl(SiO3)2), amblygonite (Li,Na)AlPO4(F,OH)), lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2). ବ୍ୟବସାୟିକ ଭାବେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଲିଥିୟମ ବ୍ରିନ୍‌ସ୍ (brines)ରୁ ମିଳିଥାଏ । ଏହା ବ୍ୟତୀତ ତରଳ ଲିଥିୟମ କ୍ଳୋରାଇଡରେ ବୈଦୁତିକ ଚାର୍ଜ ପ୍ରବାହିତ କରାଇ ଲିଥିୟମ ବାହାର କରାଯାଏ । ପ୍ରତିବର୍ଷ ପାଖାପାଖି ୩୯ ଟନ ଲିଥିୟମ ତିଆରି ହୋଇଥାଏ ।

Abundance

  • Universe: 0.006 ppm (by weight)
  • Sun: 0.00006 ppm (by weight)
  • Carbonaceous meteorite: 1.7 ppm
  • Earth's Crust: 20 ppm
  • Seawater: 0.18 ppm
  • Human:
30 ppb by weight
27 ppb by atoms

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011[୧]
  Ceramics and glass (29%)
  Batteries (27%)
  Lubricating greases (12%)
  Continuous casting (5%)
  Air treatment (4%)
  Polymers (3%)
  Primary aluminum production (2%)
  Pharmaceuticals (2%)
  Other (16%)

Used in batteries, ceramics, glass, lubricants, alloy hardeners, pharmaceuticals, hydrogenating agents, heat transfer liquids, rocket propellants, vitamin A synthesis, nuclear reactor coolant, underwater buoyancy devices and the production of tritium. Deoxidizer in copper and copper alloys. Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper, and manganese are used to make high performance aircraft parts. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers (the effect is due to the lithium ion, so the type of salt is unimportant). They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. Useful amounts of lithium for this use are only slightly lower than toxic amounts, so the blood levels of lithium must be carefully monitored during such treatment. Lithium metal is used as a catalyst in some types of methamphetamine production, particularly in illegal amateur "meth labs."

ଟୀକା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]