ନିକେଲ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nickel,  28Ni
A pitted and lumpy piece of silvery metal, with the top surface cut flat
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକnickel, Ni
Appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈnɪkəl/ NIK-əl
Nickel in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)28
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 10, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar)58.6934(4)(2)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
per shell
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density near r.t.8.908 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of 377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.07 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4[୧], 3, 2, 1[୨], -1 ​mildly basic oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.91
energies
(more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
Speed of sound thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness4.0
Vickers hardness638 MPa
Brinell hardness700 MPa
CAS Number7440-02-0
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolationAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Most stable isotopes of nickel
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y β+β+ 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
| references

ନିକେଲ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Niପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୨୮ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ପରମାଣବିକ ଓ ଭୌତିକ ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବିଶ୍ୱବ୍ୟାପି ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ନିଷ୍କାସନ ଓ ଶୋଧନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. M. Carnes; et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  2. S. Pfirrmann; et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]