ନିକେଲ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Nickel,  28Ni
A pitted and lumpy piece of silvery metal, with the top surface cut flat
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ nickel, Ni
Appearance lustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈnɪkəl/ nik-əl
Nickel in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 28
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 10, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar) 58.6934(4)(2)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
per shell
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.908 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of 377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4[୧], 3, 2, 1[୨], -1 ​mildly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.91
energies
(more)
Atomic radius empirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
Speed of sound thin rod 4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 638 MPa
Brinell hardness 700 MPa
CAS Number 7440-02-0
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolation Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Most stable isotopes of nickel
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y β+β+ 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
| references

ନିକେଲ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Niପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୨୮ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ପରମାଣବିକ ଓ ଭୌତିକ ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବିଶ୍ୱବ୍ୟାପି ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ନିଷ୍କାସନ ଓ ଶୋଧନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. M. Carnes et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. S. Pfirrmann et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. 

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]