ସିଲିକନ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Silicon,  14Si
SiliconCroda.jpg
Silicon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of Silicon
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ silicon, Si
Appearance crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈsɪlɪkən/ sil-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ sil-ə-kon
Silicon in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 14
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 14 (carbon group), p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 3
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   metalloid
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar) 28.085(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Ne] 3s2 3p2
per shell
2, 8, 4
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ/mol
Heat of 359 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[୧] -1, -2, -3, -4amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.90
energies
(more)
Atomic radius empirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for silicon
Speed of sound thin rod 8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 103[୨] Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[୩]
Young's modulus 130-188[୪] GPa
Shear modulus 51-80[୪] GPa
Bulk modulus 97.6[୪] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.064 - 0.28[୪]
Mohs hardness 7
CAS Number 7440-21-3
ଇତିହାସ
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Jöns Jacob Berzelius[୫][୬] (1823)
First isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named by Thomas Thomson (1817)
Most stable isotopes of silicon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Si trace 153 y β 13.020 32P
| references

ସିଲିକନ (ଇଂରାଜୀ: Silicon) ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Si ଓ ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୧୪ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଭୌତିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ରାସାୟନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • 28Si [14 neutrons]

Abundance: 92.23% Stable with 14 neutrons

  • 29Si [15 neutrons]

Abundance: 4.67% Stable with 15 neutrons

  • 30Si [16 neutrons]

Abundance: 3.1% Stable with 16 neutrons

  • 32Si [18 neutrons]

Abundance: synthetic Half life: 132 years [ beta- ] Decay Energy: 0.221 MeV Decays to 32P.

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ପୃଥିବୀରେ ମିଳୁଥିବା ମୌଳିକମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଏହା ୨ୟ ସର୍ବାଧିକ|ଏହାର ପରିମାଣ ପ୍ରାୟ ୨୫.୭% ।(ଅମ୍ଲଜାନ ସର୍ବାଧିକ) | କ୍ଲେ, ଗ୍ରାନାଇଟ, ଫେଲ୍‌ଡସ୍ପର୍‌, ମାଇକା, ଆଜ୍‌ବେଷ୍ଟସ୍‌, କ୍ୱାର୍ଜ ଓ ବାଲିରେ ଏହା ମିଶ୍ରିତ ଭାବରେ ରହିଥାଏ| ମୂଖ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ପାଦନକାରି ଦେଶ ଗୁଡିକ ହେଲେ ଅଷ୍ଟିଆ, ଇଟାଲି, ଦକ୍ଷିଣ ଆଫ୍ରିକା,ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ, କାନାଡା, ଭାରତ, ଓ ବ୍ରାଜିଲ୍‌। ବାର୍ଷିକ ପ୍ରାୟ ୫୦୦୦ ଟନ୍‌ ସିଲିକନ ଉପ୍ତାଦିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ | ପ୍ରାଚୁର୍ଯ୍ୟତା:

  • ବିଶ୍ୱ: 700 ppm (by weight
  • ସୁର୍ଯ୍ୟ: 900 ppm (by weight
  • ଭୁତ୍ୱକ୍‌: 2.771 x 105 ppm
  • ସମୁଦ୍ର ଜଳ:

ଆଟ୍‌ଲାଣ୍ଟିକ ମହାସାଗର :୦.୮୫ ppm ପାସିଫିକ ମହାସାଗର: ୪.୧୨ ppm

  • ମାନବ ଶରୀର :
  260000 ppb by weight
  58000 ppb by atoms

ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

କାଚ, ସେମିକଣ୍ଡକ୍ଟର, ମାଇକ୍ରୋଚିପ୍‌, ସୋଲାର ସେଲ, ସିମେଣ୍ଟ, ଏଲସିଡି, ଗ୍ରିଜ୍‌ ପ୍ରଭୃତି ନିର୍ମାଣରେ ସିଲିକନ ବହୁଳ ଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ |

ଇଲେକ୍ଟ୍ରୋନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • ମଲିବଡ଼ିନମ' ସିଲିସାଇଡ୍
  • ପଲିଡାଇମିଥାଇଲସିଲକ୍ସେନ
  • ପ୍ଲାଟିନମ ସିଲିସାଇଡ୍
  • ସିଲିକନ ଜର୍ମାନିଅମ୍
  • ସିଲେନ
  • ସିଲିକନ କାର୍ବାଇଡ୍
  • ସିଲିକନ୍ ଡାଇଅକ୍ସାଇଡ୍
  • ସିଲିକନ ନାଇଟ୍ରାଇଡ୍

ଟୀକା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. 
  2. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ ୪.୨ ୪.୩ [୧] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  5. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1386–1412. 
  6. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397. 

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • Greenwood, Norman N; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2 ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]