ଗ୍ୟାଡ଼ୋଲିନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
(Gadolinium ରୁ ଲେଉଟି ଆସିଛି)
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Gadolinium,  64Gd
Gadolinium-4.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକgadolinium, Gd
Appearancesilvery white
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˌɡædəˈlɪniəm/
GAD-ə-LIN-ee-əm
Gadolinium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)64
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup n/a, f-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 6
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  lanthanide
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)157.25
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ3546 K ​(3273 °C, ​5923 °F)
Density near r.t.7.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.7.4 g/cm3
Heat of fusion10.05 kJ/mol
Heat of 301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity37.03 J/(mol·K)
 pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
Atomic properties
Oxidation states1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.20
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for gadolinium
Speed of sound thin rod2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity(r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic/paramagnetic
transition at 293.4 K
Young's modulus(α form) 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus(α form) 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus(α form) 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio(α form) 0.259
Vickers hardness570 MPa
CAS Number7440-54-2
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Most stable isotopes of gadolinium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 2.205 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% 154Gd is stable with 90 neutrons
155Gd 14.80% 155Gd is stable with 91 neutrons
156Gd 20.47% 156Gd is stable with 92 neutrons
157Gd 15.65% 157Gd is stable with 93 neutrons
158Gd 24.84% 158Gd is stable with 94 neutrons
160Gd 21.86% >1.3×1021 y ββ 1.729 160Dy
| references

ଗ୍ୟାଡ଼ୋଲିନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Gdପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୬୪ ଅଟେ ।

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