ଗାଲିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ gallium, Ga
Appearance silver-white
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈɡæliəm/ gal-ee-əm
Gallium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 31
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 13, p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   post-transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar) 69.723(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 2477 K ​(2204 °C, ​3999 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of 254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.81
energies
(more)
Atomic radius empirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius 122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 187 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for gallium
Speed of sound thin rod 2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 270 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Young's modulus 9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.47
Mohs hardness 1.5
Brinell hardness 60 MPa
CAS Number 7440-55-3
ଇତିହାସ
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Most stable isotopes of gallium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable with 40 neutrons
| references

ଗାଲିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Gaପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୩୧ ଅଟେ ।

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