ଜର୍ମାନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
(Germanium ରୁ ଲେଉଟି ଆସିଛି)
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Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2x3 cm) polycrystalline block of Ge with uneven cleaved surfaces
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକgermanium, Ge
Appearancegrayish-white
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ərˈmniəm/
jər-MAY-nee-əm
Germanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)32
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 14 (carbon group), p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  metalloid
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)72.63(1) 
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density near r.t.5.323 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.5.60 g/cm3
Heat of fusion36.94 kJ/mol
Heat of 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity23.222 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radiusempirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius122 pm
Van der Waals radius211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed of sound thin rod5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingDiamagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus103[୨] GPa
Shear modulus41[୨] GPa
Bulk modulus75[୨] GPa
Poisson ratio0.26[୨]
Mohs hardness6.0
CAS Number7440-56-4
ଇତିହାସ
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
ଆବିଷ୍କାରClemens Winkler (1886)
Most stable isotopes of germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
| references

ଜର୍ମାନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Geପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୩୨ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉପସ୍ଥିତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗଠନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. ୨.୦ ୨.୧ ୨.୨ ୨.୩ "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]