ହାଫ୍‌ନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Hafnium,  72Hf
Hf-crystal bar.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ hafnium, Hf
Appearance steel gray
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈhæfniəm/
haf-nee-əm
Hafnium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 72
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 4, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 6
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar) 178.49
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 2506 K ​(2233 °C, ​4051 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 4876 K ​(4603 °C, ​8317 °F)
Density near r.t. 13.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 12 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 27.2 kJ/mol
Heat of 571 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.73 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radius empirical: 159 pm
Covalent radius 175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for hafnium
Speed of sound thin rod 3010 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 5.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 23.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 331 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus 78 GPa
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1760 MPa
Brinell hardness 1700 MPa
CAS Number 7440-58-6
ଇତିହାସ
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
First isolation Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Most stable isotopes of hafnium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 0.350 172Lu
174Hf 0.162% 2×1015 y α 2.495 170Yb
176Hf 5.206% 176Hf is stable with 104 neutrons
177Hf 18.606% 177Hf is stable with 105 neutrons
178Hf 27.297% 178Hf is stable with 106 neutrons
178m3Hf syn 31 y IT 2.446 178Hf
179Hf 13.629% 179Hf is stable with 107 neutrons
180Hf 35.1% 180Hf is stable with 108 neutrons
182Hf trace 8.9×106 y β 0.373 182Ta
| references

ହାଫ୍‌ନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Hfପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୭୨ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଭୌତିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ରସାୟନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉପସ୍ଥିତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗଠନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]