ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox silicon

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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Silicon,  14Si
Silicon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of Silicon
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକsilicon, Si
Appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈsɪlɪkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon
Silicon in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)14
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 14 (carbon group), p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 3
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  metalloid
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar)28.085(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Ne] 3s2 3p2
per shell
2, 8, 4
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density near r.t.2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.2.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.21 kJ/mol
Heat of 359 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity19.789 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1[୧] -1, -2, -3, -4amphoteric oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.90
Atomic radiusempirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius111 pm
Van der Waals radius210 pm
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for silicon
Speed of sound thin rod8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity103[୨] Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[୩]
Young's modulus130-188[୪] GPa
Shear modulus51-80[୪] GPa
Bulk modulus97.6[୪] GPa
Poisson ratio0.064 - 0.28[୪]
Mohs hardness7
CAS Number7440-21-3
PredictionAntoine Lavoisier (1787)
ଆବିଷ୍କାରJöns Jacob Berzelius[୫][୬] (1823)
First isolationJöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named byThomas Thomson (1817)
Most stable isotopes of silicon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Si trace 153 y β 13.020 32P
| references


  1. Ram, R. S.; et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
  2. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ ୪.୨ ୪.୩ [୧] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  5. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (8): 1386–1412.
  6. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.