ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox Thulium

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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Thulium,  69Tm
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକthulium, Tm
Appearancesilvery gray
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈθjliəm/ THEW-lee-əm
Thulium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)69
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup n/a, f-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 6
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  lanthanide
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)168.93421
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Xe] 4f13 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ1818 K ​(1545 °C, ​2813 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ2223 K ​(1950 °C, ​3542 °F)
Density near r.t.9.32 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.8.56 g/cm3
Heat of fusion16.84 kJ/mol
Heat of 247 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.03 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states2, 3, 4 (basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.25
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for thulium
Thermal expansion(r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity16.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity(r.t.) (poly) 676 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus74.0 GPa
Shear modulus30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio0.213
Vickers hardness520 MPa
Brinell hardness471 MPa
CAS Number7440-30-4
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରPer Teodor Cleve (1879)
First isolationPer Teodor Cleve (1879)
Most stable isotopes of thulium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 0.748 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 1.679 168Er
169Tm 100% 169Tm is stable with 100 neutrons
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 0.968 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 0.096 171Yb
| references

References