ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox Niobium

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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Niobium,  41Nb
A lump of gray shining crystals with hexagonal facetting
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକniobium, Nb
Appearancegray metallic, bluish when oxidized
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /nˈbiəm/
ny-OH-bee-əm;
/kəˈlʌmbiəm/
kə-LUM-bee-əm
Niobium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
V

Nb

Ta
zirconiumniobiummolybdenum
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)41
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 5, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 5
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)92.90638
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Kr] 4d4 5s1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F)
Density near r.t.8.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion30 kJ/mol
Heat of 689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.60 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2942 3207 3524 3910 4393 5013
Atomic properties
Oxidation states5, 4, 3, 2, -1
(mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.6
Atomic radiusempirical: 146 pm
Covalent radius164±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Cubic body-centered crystal structure for niobium
Speed of sound thin rod3480 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion7.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity53.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity152 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Young's modulus105 GPa
Shear modulus38 GPa
Bulk modulus170 GPa
Poisson ratio0.40
Mohs hardness6.0
Vickers hardness1320 MPa
Brinell hardness736 MPa
CAS Number7440-03-1
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରCharles Hatchett (1801)
First isolationChristian Wilhelm Blomstrand (1864)
Recognized as a distinct element byHeinrich Rose (1844)
Most stable isotopes of niobium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
91Nb syn 6.8×102 y ε - 91Zr
91mNb syn 60.86 d IT 0.104e 91Nb
92Nb syn 10.15 d ε - 92Zr
γ 0.934 -
92Nb syn 3.47×107y ε - 92Zr
γ 0.561, 0.934 -
93Nb 100% 93Nb is stable with 52 neutrons
93mNb syn 16.13 y IT 0.031e 93Nb
94Nb syn 2.03×104 y β 0.471 94Mo
γ 0.702, 0.871 -
95Nb syn 34.991 d β 0.159 95Mo
γ 0.765 -
95mNb syn 3.61 d IT 0.235 95Nb
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References