ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox Hafnium

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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Hafnium,  72Hf
Hf-crystal bar.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକhafnium, Hf
Appearancesteel gray
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈhæfniəm/
HAF-nee-əm
Hafnium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)72
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 4, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 6
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)178.49
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ2506 K ​(2233 °C, ​4051 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ4876 K ​(4603 °C, ​8317 °F)
Density near r.t.13.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.12 g/cm3
Heat of fusion27.2 kJ/mol
Heat of 571 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.73 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2 (amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radiusempirical: 159 pm
Covalent radius175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for hafnium
Speed of sound thin rod3010 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion5.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity23.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity331 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus78 GPa
Shear modulus30 GPa
Bulk modulus110 GPa
Poisson ratio0.37
Mohs hardness5.5
Vickers hardness1760 MPa
Brinell hardness1700 MPa
CAS Number7440-58-6
ଇତିହାସ
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1869)
ଆବିଷ୍କାରDirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
First isolationDirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Most stable isotopes of hafnium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 0.350 172Lu
174Hf 0.162% 2×1015 y α 2.495 170Yb
176Hf 5.206% 176Hf is stable with 104 neutrons
177Hf 18.606% 177Hf is stable with 105 neutrons
178Hf 27.297% 178Hf is stable with 106 neutrons
178m3Hf syn 31 y IT 2.446 178Hf
179Hf 13.629% 179Hf is stable with 107 neutrons
180Hf 35.1% 180Hf is stable with 108 neutrons
182Hf trace 8.9×106 y β 0.373 182Ta
| references

References

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.