ଅଙ୍ଗାରକ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ

| colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Main article: Isotopes of carbon

Carbon
6C
-

C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
ଭୌତିକ ରୁପ
clear (diamond) & black (graphite)


Spectral lines of Carbon
ସାଧାରଣ ଧର୍ମ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ,
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ
carbon, C,
6
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈkɑrbən/
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର nonmetal
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ, ବ୍ଲକ୍ 14, 2, p
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ 12.011(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [He] 2s2 2p2
2, 4
Electron shells of carbon (2, 4)
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Egyptians and Sumerians[୧] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[୨] (1789)
ଭୌତିକ ଧର୍ମ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
(ରୁମ୍ ଟେମ୍ପରେଚର୍‌ରେ ଘନତା) amorphous:[୩] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[୪][୫] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[୬], 2, 1[୭], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[୮]
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond

(diamond, clear)
simple hexagonal

(graphite, black)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[୯]
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond)[୧୦] µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[୧୦]
Mohs hardness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP

15

11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
· r

ଅଙ୍ଗାରକ (ଇଂରାଜୀ: Carbon;କାର୍ବନ) ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ, ଏହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ C, ଓ ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୬ । ଏହା ଏକ ଅଧାତୁ ଅଟେ । ଅଙ୍ଗାରକର ତିନୋଟି ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ ଅଛନ୍ତି, ତାହା ଭିତରୁ ଦୁଇଟି ସ୍ଥିର ଓ ଅନ୍ୟଟି ତେଜସ୍କ୍ରିୟ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଅଙ୍ଗାରକ ଚକ୍ର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଜୈବିକ ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଅଜୈବିକ ଯୌଗିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇତିହାସ ଓ ନାମକରଣ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗ୍ରାଫାଇଟ୍[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ହୀରା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

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  2. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/inorganic/faq/discovery-of-carbon.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  3. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP". http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/36.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical". http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/42.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  8. "Carbon: Binary compounds". http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/C/comp.html. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ ୧୦.୨ ୧୦.୩ ୧୦.୪ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]