ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox carbon

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ

| colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Main article: Isotopes of carbon

Carbon
6C
-

C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
ଭୌତିକ ରୁପ
clear (diamond) & black (graphite)


Spectral lines of Carbon
ସାଧାରଣ ଧର୍ମ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ,
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ
carbon, C,
6
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈkɑrbən/
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର nonmetal
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ, ବ୍ଲକ୍ 14, 2, p
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ 12.011(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [He] 2s2 2p2
2, 4
Electron shells of carbon (2, 4)
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Egyptians and Sumerians[୧] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[୨] (1789)
ଭୌତିକ ଧର୍ମ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
(ରୁମ୍ ଟେମ୍ପରେଚର୍‌ରେ ଘନତା) amorphous:[୩] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[୪][୫] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[୬], 2, 1[୭], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[୮]
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond

(diamond, clear)
simple hexagonal

(graphite, black)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[୯]
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond)[୧୦] µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond)[୧୦] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[୧୦]
Mohs hardness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP

15

11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
· r

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
  1. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. http://www.caer.uky.edu/carbon/history/carbonhistory.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  2. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/inorganic/faq/discovery-of-carbon.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  3. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP". http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/36.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical". http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/42.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  8. "Carbon: Binary compounds". http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/C/comp.html. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ ୧୦.୨ ୧୦.୩ ୧୦.୪ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database