ବ୍ୟବହାରକାରୀ:Bikash Ojha/new2

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ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Wiki markup Wiki markup, also known as wikitext or wikicode, consists of the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this markup, and to save an edit, see: Help:Editing. There is a short list of markup and tips at Help:Cheatsheet.

In addition to wiki markup, some HTML elements are also allowed for presentation formatting. See Help:HTML in wikitext for information on this.

Layout

Sections

Sections in a page will follow the page's WP:LEAD|lead/introduction and (under certain conditions,) the WP:TOC|Table of Contents.

Section headings

The = through ====== markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.

• A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
• Headings are styled through CSS and add an  link. Help:Cascading Style Sheets#Wiki headings|See this section for the relevant CSS.
• Four or more headings cause a table of contents to be generated automatically.
• Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.

Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.

Horizontal rule

The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content, as rules are only used after main sections, and this is automatic.

Markup Renders as
----

HTML equivalent: <hr />

Table of contents

When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:

• __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
• __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
• __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
• {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.
• :Category:Wikipedia table of contents templates contains a number of specialized TOC templates.

Line breaks

Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.

• A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing Enter twice.
• Pressing Enter once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
• Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.
Markup Renders as
A single newline here
has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph,
or ends a list or an indented part.


ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Crlf2 A single newline here has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.

HTML equivalent: <br> or <br />

Templates:

• {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
• {{-}} and {{clear}} adds a break with styling, to clear floating elements.
• {{plainlist}} and {{unbulleted list}} both create an unbulleted list.

Indent text

Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.

Markup Renders as
Indentation as used on talk pages:
:Each colon at the start of a line
::causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
:::(The indentation persists
so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)
:::Repeat the indentation at any line break.
::::Use an extra colon for each response.
:::::And so forth ...
::::::And so on ...
{{Outdent|::::::}}The outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)

Indentation as used on talk pages:

Each colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
(The indentation persists

so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)

Repeat the indentation at any line break.
Use an extra colon for each response.
And so forth ...
And so on ...

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────The outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)

Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}

Blockquote

When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

Markup Renders as
<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>


The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

Center text

Markup Renders as
<div class="center" style="width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">Centered text</div>
Centered text

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use <center>...</center>, as it is obsolete.

Align text to right

You can align content in a separate container:

Markup Renders as
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-left: 1em;">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Or; make the text float around it:

Markup Renders as
<div class="floatright">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
{{stack|Text on the right}}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Lists

Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.

Unordered lists

Markup Renders as
* Item1
* Item2
* Item3
* Item4
** Sub-item 4 a)
*** Sub-item 4 a) 1.
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
**** Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
** Sub-item 4 b)
* Item5
• Item1
• Item2
• Item3
• Item4
• Sub-item 4 a)
• Sub-item 4 a) 1.
• Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
• Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
• Sub-item 4 b)
• Item5

Ordered lists

Markup Renders as
# Item1
# Item2
# Item3
# Item4
## Sub-item 1
### Sub-sub-item
#### Sub-sub-sub-item
## Sub-item 2
# Item5

1. Item1
2. Item2
3. Item3
4. Item4
1. Sub-item 1
1. Sub-sub-item
1. Sub-sub-sub-item
2. Sub-item 2
5. Item5

Description lists

To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition. The format can also be used for other purposes, such as make and models of vehicles, etc.

Description lists (formerly definition lists, and a.k.a. association lists) consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.

Markup Renders as
; Term : Definition1
Term
Definition1
; Term
: Definition1
: Definition2
: Definition3
: Definition4
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4

HTML equivalent: <dl> <dt>...</dt>, <dd>...</dd> </dl>

Templates: {{defn}}

Retaining newlines and spaces

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The mw:Extension:Poem|Poem extension adds HTML-like <poem>...</poem> tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as <blockquote>...</blockquote>. H:CSS|CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.

Markup Renders as
<poem>
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
</poem>

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

Format

Text formatting

Description What you type What it looks like

italics, bold, small capital letters

To ''italicize text'', put two
consecutive apostrophes on each side
of it.

Three apostrophes each side will
'''bold the text'''.

Five consecutive apostrophes on each
side (two for italics plus three for
bold) produces '''''bold italics'''''.

'''''Italic and bold formatting'''''
only works correctly within a single
line.

For text as {{smallcaps|small caps}},
use the template {{tl|smallcaps}}.


To italicize text, put two consecutive apostrophes on each side of it.

Three apostrophes each side will bold the text.

Five consecutive apostrophes on each side (two for italics plus three for bold) produces bold italics.

Italic and bold formatting only works correctly within a single line.

For text as small caps, use the template {{smallcaps}}.

To reverse this effect where it has been automatically applied, use {{nobold}} and {{noitalic}}.

Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

Code is displayed in a Monospaced font|monospace font.

function <code>int m2()</code> is nice.

function int m2() is nice.

mw:Extension:SyntaxHighlight GeSHi|Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

See here for a full list of supported languages which can be put in lang="????"

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>

OR (will be rendered exactly the same way)

<source lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}</source>
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
std::cout <<"Hello World!";
return 0;
}


Small text

Use <small>small text</small> only
when necessary.


Use small text only when necessary.

a <small> span

To match, for example, the font-size
used in an [[Help:Visual file
markup#Caption|image caption]],
the "small" tag can also be used to
<small style="font-size:87%;">reduce
a text's font-size to 87%</small>.


To match, for example, the font-size used in an Help:Visual file markup#Caption|image caption, the "small" tag can also be used to reduce a text's font-size to 87%.

Big text

Better not use <big>big text</big>,
unless <small>it's <big>within</big>
small</small> text.


Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

To prevent two words from becoming separated by a linewrap (e.g. Mr. Smith or 400 km/h) a non-breaking space, sometimes also called a "non-printing character", may be used between them. (For three or more words, the template {{nowrap}} is probably more suitable.)

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h

Mr. Smith or 400 km/h

Extra spacing within text is usually best achieved using the {{pad}} template.

Mary {{pad|4.0em}} had a little lamb.

Mary   had a little lamb.

Special characters

Special characters can often be displayed using Numeric character reference|numeric character references or List of XML and HTML character entity references|character entity references. See Character encodings in HTML for more information. For example, &Agrave; and &#xC0; both render À (A-Grave accent|grave). Percent-encoding can't be used, as it only works in URLs.

Diacritical marks

Diacritic marks, using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;

&Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;

&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;

&Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig;

&Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig;

&agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;

&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;

&igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;

&ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;

&ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

Ç È É Ê Ë

Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ

Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß

à á â ã ä å æ ç

è é ê ë

ì í î ï ñ

ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

ù ú û ü ÿ

Punctuation special characters

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para; ¿ ¡ § ¶
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash; † ‡ • – —
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo; ‹ › « »
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo; ‘ ’ “ ”
&apos; &quot; ' "

Escaping punctuation characters

The #Pre|<pre>, #Nowiki|<nowiki>, and #Code|<code> markup tags are also available, for writing "[", "{", "&", "}", "]" for example. These tags prevent these characters from being recognised as wiki markup, which is a possibility in some circumstances.

Commercial symbols

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&trade; &copy; &reg;  ™ © ®
&cent; &euro; &yen; &pound; &curren; 

¢ € ¥ £ ¤

Greek characters

Using character entity references.

What you type What it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;  α β γ δ ε ζ
&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta; Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; η θ ι κ λ μ ν
&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu; &Nu;  Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf; ξ ο π ρ σ ς
&Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;  Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega; τ υ φ χ ψ ω
&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;  Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Egyptian hieroglyphs

WikiHiero is a software extension that renders Egyptian hieroglyphs as PNG images using <hiero> tags.

Example:

Markup Renders as
<hiero>P2</hiero>

Chess symbols

For example, &#9812; displays ♔

Subscripts and superscripts

• The Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics)#Superscripts and subscripts|Manual of Style prefers the <sub> and <sup> formats, for example x<sub>1</sub>. So this should be used under most circumstances.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines.
Description What you type What it looks like

Subscripts

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or

x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;

x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;


x1 x2 x3 or

x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄

x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;

x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;


x1 x2 x3 or

x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴

x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m

1 hectare = 1 E+4 m&sup2;


ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

1 hectare = 1 E+4 m²

Characters in the Private Use Area, and invisible formatting characters

Invisible and Private Use Areas|PUA (Private Use Areas) characters should be avoided where possible. When needed, they should both be replaced with their (hexa)decimal code values (as "&#(x)...;"). This renders invisible characters visible, for manual editing, and allows Wikipedia:AutoWikiBrowser|AWB to process pages with PUA characters. The latter should also be tagged with the {{PUA}} template for tracking and future maintenance.

Mathematical characters and formulae

Mathematical characters

• See also Wikipedia:Mathematical symbols, Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics|WikiProject Mathematics and TeX.
What you type What it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; ∫ ∑ ∏ √
&minus; &plusmn; &infin; − ± ∞
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; ≈ ∝ ≡ ≠
&le; &ge; ≤ ≥
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; × · ÷ ∂
&prime; &Prime; ′ ″
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; ∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ
&oslash; ø
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; ∈ ∉ ∩ ∪
&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe; ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr; ⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr; → ↓ ↑ ← ↔

Mathematical formulae

• Formulae that include mathematical letters, like x, and operators like × should not use the plain letter x. See MOS:MATH#Font_formatting|math font formatting. For a comprehensive set of symbols, and comparison between $ tags and the {{math}} template see section Help:Displaying_a_formula#TeX_vs_HTML|TeX vs HTML. • The [itex] tag typesets using MOS:MATH#Typesetting_of_mathematical_formulae|LaTeX markup, which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The [itex] tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template. • The {{math}} template MOS:MATH#Using_HTML|uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the = sign, so remember to replace = with {{=}} in template input, or start the input with 1=. Use wikimarkup '' and ''' inside the {{math}} template, as well as other Wikipedia:Mathematical_symbols|HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text. Markup Renders as [itex]2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8 - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0$

{{math|2x &times; 4y &divide; 6z + 8 &minus; {{Fraction|y|z<sup>2</sup>}} {{=}} 0}}

$\sin 2\pi x + \ln e$

{{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}


${\displaystyle 2x\times 4y\div 6z+8-{\frac {y}{z^{2}}}=0}$ ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Crlf

2x × 4y ÷ 6z + 8 − ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Fraction = 0

${\displaystyle \sin 2\pi x+\ln e}$ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Crlf sin 2πx + ln e

Spacing in simple math formulae

• Using &nbsp; to prevent line break is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br /> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
Markup Renders as
It follows that {{math|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} for real {{mvar|x}}.

It follows that x2 ≥ 0 for real ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Mvar.

Complicated formulae

• See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. Markup Renders as : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
${\displaystyle \sum _{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{n}}{n!}}}$

Links and URLs

Free links

In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see Wikipedia:CamelCase and Wikipedia|CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia:How to edit a page#Wiki markup|Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, Texas will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing Texas|Lone Star State will produce Texas|Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

Link to another wiki article

• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Help:Link#Conversion to canonical form|Canonicalization.
• Intentionally permanent red link|A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
• Help:Self link|A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
Markup Renders as
London has public transport.

London has public transport.

Link to this article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Link to this article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Renamed link

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What you type What it looks like

New York also has public transport|public transportation.

New York also has public transport|public transportation.

Automatically rename links

• Simply typing the pipe character | after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When Help:Show preview|previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to #link-to-section|links to sections within the same page.
• See Help:Pipe trick|Pipe trick for details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

kingdom (biology)|

kingdom (biology)|kingdom

Automatically hide the comma and following text Seattle, Washington| Seattle

Automatically hide namespace

Wikipedia:Village pump|

Wikipedia:Village pump|Village pump

Or both

Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|

Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|Manual of Style

But this doesn't work for section links

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|

Blend link

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using the #Nowiki|<nowiki /> tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What you type What it looks like
Blending active

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.
A micro-second A micro-second

Blending suppressed

A micro-<nowiki />second.

A micro-second

Link to a section of a page

• The part after the hash sign (#) must match a Section_editing#Creation_and_numbering_of_sections|section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the beginning of the page.
• Include "| link title" to create a stylish (WP:Piping|piped) link title.
• If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What you type What it looks like

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. #Links and URLs|Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

1. Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. #Links and URLs|Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

Create a page link

• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see Wikipedia:Starting an article|starting an article and check out Wikipedia's Wikipedia:Naming conventions|naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What you type What it looks like

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

Redirects

• Wikipedia:Redirect|Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article

#REDIRECT United States

Redirect to a section

#REDIRECT United States#History

Link to another Help:namespace|namespace

• The full page name should be included in double square brackets.
What you type What it looks like

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

Link to the same article in another language (interlanguage links)

• To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: language code:Foreign title.
• It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
• Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
• NOTE: To create an inline link (a clickable link within the text) to any foreign language article, see Help:Interlanguage links#Inline interlanguage links and consider the usage notes.
Description What you type

Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article :es:Plancton|"Plancton".

"es" is the language code for "español" (the Spanish language).

es:Plancton


Other examples: French (fr for français), German (de for Deutsch), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

fr:Plancton
de:Plankton
ru:Планктон
simple:Plankton


Interwiki link

• Interwiki links link to any page on other wikis. Help:Interwikimedia links|Interwikimedia links link to other Wikimedia wikis.
• Note that interwikimedia links use the internal link style, with double square brackets.
• See MetaWikiPedia:Interwiki_map for the list of shortcuts; if the site you want to link to is not on the list, use an #External links|external link.
• See also Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects|Wikimedia sister projects.
Description What you type What it looks like

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hello.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

Wiktionary:hello

Wiktionary:hello|

Wiktionary:hello|Wiktionary definition of "hello"

Wiktionary:hello

Wiktionary:hello|hello

Wiktionary:hello|Wiktionary definition of "hello"

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|fr:bonjour

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour

Categories

• To put an article in a Wikipedia:Categorization|category, place a link like Category:Example into the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at WP:FOOTERS|the end of the article is recommended.
• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What you type What it looks like

Categorize an article.

Category:Character sets

Link to a category.

:Category:Character sets

Category:Character sets

Without prefix.

:Category:Character sets|

Category:Character sets|Character sets