ମେଥଆମ୍ଫେଟାମିନ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ‌ରୁ
ମେଥଆମ୍ଫେଟାମିନ
An image of the methamphetamine compound
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmn/
Trade namesDesoxyn, Methedrine, others
SynonymsN-methylamphetamine, N,α-dimethylphenethylamine, desoxyephedrine
AHFS/Drugs.commonograph
data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Dependence
liability
Physical: None; Psychological: High
Addiction
liability
High
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityBy mouth: 70%[୪]
IV: 100%[୪]
Protein bindingVaries widely[୫]
MetabolismCYP2D6[୧][୨] and FMO3[୩]
Onset of actionRapid[୬]
Elimination half-life5–30 hours[୭]
Duration of action10–20 hours[୬]
ExcretionPrimarily kidney
Identifiers
  • (RS)-N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
ECHA InfoCard100.007.882 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H15N
Molar mass୧୪୯.୨୪ g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point170 °C (338 °F) [୮]
Boiling point212 °C (414 °F) at 760 mmHg[୮]
  • CNC(C)Cc1ccccc1
  • InChI=1S/C10H15N/c1-9(11-2)8-10-6-4-3-5-7-10/h3-7,9,11H,8H2,1-2H3 checkY
  • Key:MYWUZJCMWCOHBA-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

ମେଥଆମ୍ଫେଟାମିନ [note 1] ହେଉଛି ଏକ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରୀୟ ସ୍ନାୟୁ ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ (CNS) ଉତ୍ତେଜକ ଯାହା ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ଏକ ମନୋରଞ୍ଜନକାରୀ ଔଷଧ ଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ଏବଂ ଧ୍ୟାନାଭାବ ଓ ଅତିସକ୍ରିୟତା ବିକାର, ନିଦ୍ରେବେଶ ଏବଂ ମୋଟାପଣର ଚିକିତ୍ସା ପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ । [୯] [୧୦] ମେଦବହୁଳତା ପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହାର ଆଉ ସୁପାରିଶ କରାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ | [୧୧] ଯେତେବେଳେ ପାଟିର ପ୍ରଭାବ 30 ମିନିଟ୍ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୁଏ ଏବଂ 24 ଘଣ୍ଟା ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ରହିପାରେ | [୧୧] [୧୦]

ସାଧାରଣ ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାରେ ଉଚ୍ଚ ରକ୍ତଚାପ, ଖାର ହୃତ୍‌ସ୍ପନ୍ଦନ, ମନୋବଳ ବୃଦ୍ଧି, ଶୋଇବାରେ ଅସୁବିଧା, କମ୍ପନ, ତରଳ ଝାଡ଼ା ଏବଂ ଯୌନ ସମସ୍ୟା ହୋଇପାରେ ।[୧୧] ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାରେ ସାଇକୋସିସ୍, ମାନିଆ, ବାତ, ଶରୀରର ଉଚ୍ଚ ତାପମାତ୍ରା ଏବଂ ଟିକ୍ସ ହୋଇପାରେ ।[୧୧] [୧୨] ଅପବ୍ୟବହାରରେ ଉଚ୍ଚ ବିପଦ ଆଶଙ୍କା ଅଛି; ଯଦିଓ ବ୍ୟବହାରରୁ ସିଧାସଳଖ ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ବିରଳ ଅଟେ । [୧୧] [୧୦] ଗର୍ଭାବସ୍ଥାରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କଲେ ଶିଶୁକୁ କ୍ଷତି ପହଞ୍ଚାଇପାରେ ଏବଂ ସ୍ତନ୍ୟପାନ କରାଇବା ପରାମର୍ଶ ଦିଆଯାଇନଥାଏ । [୧୧] [୧୩] ଏହା ଏକ ଆମ୍ଫେଟାମିନ ପରିବାରର ଔଷଧ ।[୧୧]

ଏହା ୧୯୮୩ରେ ଆବିଷ୍କୃତ ହୋଇଥିଲା ଏବଂ ପ୍ରଥମେ ୧୯୧୯ ମସିହାରେ ଉତ୍ପାଦିତ ହୋଇଥିଲା । [୧୦] [୧୪] ନିଶା ଭାବରେ ଏହାକୁ ଶୁଙ୍ଘାଯାଏ, ଖିଆଯାଏ, ଇଞ୍ଜେକସନ ଆକାରରେ ଦିଆଯାଏ କିମ୍ବା ଧୂମପାନ ହୋଇପାରେ ।[୧୦] ଏହାକୁ ଏକ ଅନୁସୂଚୀତ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରିତ ସିଡ୍ୟୁଲ ୨ ପଦାର୍ଥ ଭାବରେ ବର୍ଗୀକୃତ କରାଯାଇଛି ।[୧୦] ଅନେକ ଦେଶରେ ମେଥଆମ୍ଫେଟାମିନ ଉତ୍ପାଦନ, ବଣ୍ଟନ ଏବଂ ଧାରଣ ସୀମିତ କିମ୍ବା ନିଷେଧ ହୋଇଛି । [୧୫] ୟୁରୋପରେ ୨୦୧୮ ମସିହାରେ ବେଆଇନ ଯୋଗାଣ ପାଇଁ ଗ୍ରାମ ପିଛା ପ୍ରାୟ ୧୭ରୁ ୬୪ ୟୁରୋ ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ ହୁଏ ।[୧୬] ୨୦୧୯ରେ ପ୍ରାୟ ୨୭ ନିୟୁତ ଲୋକ ଆମ୍ଫେଟାମାଇନ୍ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିଥିଲେ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଲୋକ ମିଥାମଫେଟାମାଇନ୍ ବ୍ୟବ‌ହାର କରିଥିଲେ ।[୧୭]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Sellers EM, Tyndale RF (2000). "Mimicking gene defects to treat drug dependence". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 909 (1): 233–246. Bibcode:2000NYASA.909..233S. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06685.x. PMID 10911933. S2CID 27787938. Methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulant drug, is p-hydroxylated by CYP2D6 to less active p-OH-methamphetamine.
  2. "Adderall XR Prescribing Information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Shire US Inc. December 2013. pp. 12–13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  3. Cashman JR, Xiong YN, Xu L, Janowsky A (March 1999). "N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 288 (3): 1251–1260. PMID 10027866.
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ Rau T, Ziemniak J, Poulsen D (2015). "The neuroprotective potential of low-dose methamphetamine in preclinical models of stroke and traumatic brain injury". Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 64: 231–6. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.02.013. PMID 25724762. In humans, the oral bioavailability of methamphetamine is approximately 70% but increases to 100% following intravenous (IV) delivery (Ares-Santos et al., 2013).
  5. "Toxicity". Methamphetamine. Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2021-10-25. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |work= ignored (help)
  6. ୬.୦ ୬.୧ Riviello RJ (2010). Manual of forensic emergency medicine : a guide for clinicians. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7637-4462-5. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  7. Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Beasley DM (August 2010). "The clinical toxicology of metamfetamine". Clinical Toxicology. 48 (7): 675–694. doi:10.3109/15563650.2010.516752. ISSN 1556-3650. PMID 20849327. S2CID 42588722.
  8. ୮.୦ ୮.୧ "Chemical and Physical Properties". Methamphetamine. Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2021-10-25. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |work= ignored (help)
  9. Yu S, Zhu L, Shen Q, Bai X, Di X (March 2015). "Recent advances in methamphetamine neurotoxicity mechanisms and its molecular pathophysiology". Behav. Neurol. 2015: 103969. doi:10.1155/2015/103969. PMC 4377385. PMID 25861156. In 1971, METH was restricted by US law, although oral METH (Ovation Pharmaceuticals) continues to be used today in the USA as a second-line treatment for a number of medical conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and refractory obesity.
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ ୧୦.୨ ୧୦.୩ ୧୦.୪ ୧୦.୫ "Methamphetamine". Drug profiles. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2018. The term metamfetamine (the International Non-Proprietary Name: INN) strictly relates to the specific enantiomer (S)-N,α-dimethylbenzeneethanamine.
  11. ୧୧.୦ ୧୧.୧ ୧୧.୨ ୧୧.୩ ୧୧.୪ ୧୧.୫ ୧୧.୬ "Methamphetamine Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com (in ଇଂରାଜୀ). Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  12. "Methamphetamine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  13. "Methamphetamine". Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). National Library of Medicine (US). 2006. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  14. Mack, Avram H.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Frances, Richard J.; Miller, Sheldon I. (12 May 2016). Clinical Textbook of Addictive Disorders, Fourth Edition (in ଇଂରାଜୀ). Guilford Publications. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-4625-2169-2. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  15. Lilley, Linda Lane; Collins, Shelly Rainforth; Snyder, Julie S. (20 January 2017). Pharmacology for Canadian Health Care Practice (in ଇଂରାଜୀ). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-77172-022-9. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  16. "Infographic: amphetamine, methamphetamine, seizures, price, purity in the EU, 2018 | www.emcdda.europa.eu". www.emcdda.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  17. World Drug Report 2021 (PDF). United Nations. 2021. ISBN 9789211483611. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.