ବ୍ୟବହାରକାରୀ:DashNistha/ଓଡ଼ିଶା ଇକତ

ଓଡ଼ିଶା ଇକତ
Geographical indication
ସମ୍ବଲପୁରୀ ବାନ୍ଧକାମ
ସମ୍ବଲପୁରୀ ବାନ୍ଧକାମ

ଓଡ଼ିଶା ଇକତ, ଭାରତୀୟ ଭୌଗଳିକ ସଂକେତ ଭାବେ ଭାରତ ସରକାରଙ୍କଠାରେ ୨୦୦୯ରୁ ପଂଜିକୃତ ହୋଇଛି [୧] ଏହାର ସ୍ୱତନ୍ତ୍ର ବୁଣାଶୈଳୀ ପାଇଁ ଓଡ଼ିଶା ବାନ୍ଧ ଭାବେ ପରିଚିତ It is called "Bandha" for the method involves adopting warp and weft threads by tie-dyed process to create the design on the loom during the stage of weaving. It is unlike any other ikat woven in the rest of the country because of the design process adopted, which is termed as "poetry on the loom." This unique design is in vogue at only the western and eastern regions in Orissa and of similar designs practiced by community groups called the Bhulia, Kostha Asani, and Patara.[୨][୧] Ikat's equivalent usage in Malay language is mengikat which means "to tie or to bind".[୩] The fabric gives a striking bounded by curved line appearance. The sari made out of this fabric has bands of brocades in the borders and at also the ends called anchal or pallu. Its forms are made purposefully to resemble a plume giving it a “hazy and fragile” appearance.[୪]

This silk has been registered for protection under the Geographical indication of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. In 2007, it was listed as "Orissa Ikat" under the GI Act 1999 of the Government of India with registration confirmed by the Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks under Classes 23, 24 and 25 as Yarn and Threads Tied and Dyed for Textile use, Textile and Textile Goods, and Clothing respectively vide application number 22.[୫][୬]


The villages where this art is practiced are Mankedia in Balasore or Mayurbhanj district. In the Balangir district in West Orissa it is woven Barapalli, Remunda, Jhiliminda, Mahalakata, Singhapali, Sinepur, Patabhadi, Sagarpali, Tarabha, Biramaharajpur, Subalaya, Kendupali, Jaganathpali, and Kamalapur. In Cuttack district it is made in the villages of Badamba, Nuapatna, Maniabadha, Narashinpur, Tigiria and many more. [୭]


The history of this silk art is linked to the Lord Jagannath cult practice which is a tradition in Orissa. Every colour used in the fabric reflects a symbolic concept of the Jagannath cult; the four primary colours used as per this tradition are white, black, yellow and red with green added at a later date. These colours are said to denote the past, present and future, to the Vedas and the Gods.[୮] It is also inferred that the Ikat silk art came into existence by copying the temple architecture which existed much earlier.[୯] It is also noted that this art form was brought to Orissa in the 12th century by craftsman who migrated from the Patan region of Gujarat.[୩]


Double Ikat weaving loom in Sambalpur, Orissa

The pattern on the silk fabric is evolved through dying the warp and waft threads (yarns of very fine quality) prior to the weaving process which is unlike in other methods where the yarns in various colurs are woven. It also does not adopt the printing technique. In this process, cloth of other material are interspersed at specific locations on the loop of yarn. The dye liquor is absorbed by the yarn and then the dyed yarn is taken out of the dying process. The simple way of dying it is only once by binding the yarns in any fashion. However, in this method, the product looks spotted. But the detailed designs are created by dying the yarn in an eight stage process of tying and dyeing, which is done by skilled craftmen, at a very high cost. This method gives the Ikat its special status. It is also the practice to tie the weft and occasionally the warps to suit the patterns to get colour to the untied part. More colours are added by repeating the process of tying and dying on previously coloured parts and this way many colours are added to give the fabric a very bright and distinct shade.[୧୦]

Another notable feature in this Ikat is that it depicts the same colourful design motif on both its front and back faces, and to create this effect this no additional yarn is required. The designs are evolved during the tying and dying process by the craftsman out of his own innovative ideas rather to any specific pre-designed patterns.[୧୦]

The designs developed on the Ikat are generally of birds, various animals, rudraksh beads. geometric designs, dice, and temple towers and pinnacle.[୧][୪] The silk fabric made at Nuapatna in Cuttack district is woven with Ikat yarn as hymns from the Gitagovinda and this fabric adorns the idols at the Jagannath Temple every day.[୧][୧୧] The Ikat produced by Bhullas from Western Orissa are considered superior in both use of the fabric and pattern (which include double Ikat) compared to the product from Eastern Orissa.[୧୨]

The process of making a sari of Ikat by hand takes about seven months with two people involved, which goes through 14 stages of creation.[୩]


  1. ୧.୦ ୧.୧ ୧.୨ ୧.୩ "Textiles of Odisha (Orissa)". Official web site of Tourism Department of Orissa. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  2. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 27, 32.
  3. ୩.୦ ୩.୧ ୩.୨ "Ikat or Ikkat". utsavpedia.com. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ "Color and Pattern: Tribal and Contemporary Ikats of India and Laos". University of Nebraska. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  5. "28 Products Registered As Geographical Indications". Ministry of Commerce and Industry. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  6. "Journal 29 – Controller General of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks" (PDF). Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks. 19 March 2009. p. 16. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  7. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 27.
  8. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 29.
  9. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 31.
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 28.
  11. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 30.
  12. Ghosh & Ghosh 2000, p. 32.

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