ବୁର୍ଜ ଖଲିଫା, ଦୁବାଇ

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Burj Khalifa
برج خليفة
Burj Khalifa.jpg
The Burj Khalifa in October 2012
Former namesBurj Dubai
Record height
Tallest in the world since 2008[I]
Preceded byTaipei 101
General information
StatusComplete
TypeMixed-use
Architectural styleNeo-futurism
Location1 Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Boulevard, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Coordinates25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111Coordinates: 25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111
Construction started6 January 2004
CompletedIntended: September 2008; Revised: 2 December 2009[୧]
Opening4 January 2010[୨]
CostUSD $ 1.5 billion[୩]
Height
ଗଠନ ଶୈଳୀ828 m (2,717 ft)[୪]
Tip829.8 m (2,722 ft)[୪]
Roof828 m (2,717 ft)
Top floor584.5 m (1,918 ft) (Level 154)[୪]
Observatory555.7 m (1,823 ft) (Level 148)[୪]
Technical details
Floor count163 above ground. 154 usable floors[୪][୫]
plus 9 maintenance levels (46 spire levels)[୬] and 2 below-ground parking levels
Floor area309,473 m2 (3,331,100 sq ft)[୪]
Elevators57 (55 single deck and 2 double deck), made by Otis Elevator Company
Design and construction
ଶିଳ୍ପୀAdrian Smith at SOM
DeveloperEmaar Properties[୪]
Structural engineerBill Baker at SOM[୭]
Main contractor
Website
www.burjkhalifa.ae

ବୁର୍ଜ ଖଲିଫା (ଆରବିକରେ برج خليفة‎‎, ) ସଂଯୁକ୍ତ ଆରବ ଏମିରେଟର ଦୁବାଇରେ ଥିବା ଏକ ଆକାଶଚୁମ୍ବୀ ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକା । ଏହା ପୃଥିବୀର ସର୍ବୋଚ୍ଚ ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକା ( ୨,୭୨୨ ଫୁଟ ) ।

Burj Khalifa (16286187445)
Burj Khalifa compared with some other well-known tall structures

ବୁର୍ଜ ଖଲିଫା ( ପୂର୍ବରୁ ବୁର୍ଜ ଦୁବାଇ ନାମରେ ଜଣା) ମହଲର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ୨୦୦୪ରେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେଇ ଏହାର ବହିର୍ଭାଗ ୨୦୦୯ରେ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ ହେଇଥିଲା । ଇସ୍ପାତ  ଓ କଂକ୍ରିଟଦ୍ୱାରା ନିର୍ମିତ ଏହାର ବହିର୍ଭାଗ ହେଲା ପରେ ୨୦୧୦ରେ ଏହାର ଭିତର ନିର୍ମାଣ ପୂର୍ଣାଙ୍ଗ ହୋଇ ୨୦୧୦ ମସିହାରେ ଏହା ଉନ୍ମୋଚିତ ହେଇଥିଲା । ଦୁବାଇ ନଗରର ସହରତଳି ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ନୂତନ ବସ୍ତି ତଥା ବାଣିଜ୍ୟିକ ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ପାଇଁ ହେଇଥିବା ଯୋଜନାର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଆକର୍ଷଣ ଭାବେ ଏହି ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକାର ନିର୍ମାଣ ହେଇଥିଲା । ସେହି ସମୟରେ ଏହା ପୃଥିବୀର ସର୍ବୋଚ୍ଚ ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକାର ମାନ୍ୟତା ପାଇଲା । ଆବୁଧାବିର ଶାସକ ତଥା ଆରବ ଏମିଟରେର ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ଖଲିଫା ବିନ ଜାଏଦ ଅଲ ନୟନଙ୍କ ସମ୍ମାନାର୍ଥେ ଏହାର ନାମକରଣ ବୁର୍ଜ ଖଲିଫାକୁ ପରିବର୍ତନ କରାଯାଇଥିଲା । 

ନିର୍ମାଣ ତଥ୍ୟ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବୁର୍ଜ ଖାଲିଫାର ଡିଜାଇନ ଆଡ୍ରିଆନ ସ୍ମିଥ ନାମକ ସ୍ଥାପତ୍ୟଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା କରାଯାଇ  Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) ନାମକ ପ୍ରଖ୍ୟାତ ପ୍ରତିଷ୍ଠାନଦ୍ୱାରା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକାରୀ ହେଇଥିଲା । ସେମାନେ ଆଗରୁ willis center ତଥା one world trade center ପରି ବିଶାଳ ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକା ନିର୍ମାଣ କରିଥିଲେ। ଏହାର ସ୍ଥାପତ୍ୟରେ ପୁରାତନ ସ୍ଲାମିକ ସ୍ଥାପତ୍ୟ କଳାର ମଧ୍ୟ ପ୍ରୟୋଗ କରା ଯାଇଥିବାର ଦେଖା ଯାଏ । ଦୁବାଇ ସହରର ଉତ୍ତାପକୁ ସମ୍ଭାଳିବା ପାଇଁ ଏହାର ଡିଜାଇନରେ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାପ୍ତ ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା ରହିଛି । ଏହି ଉତ୍ଛ ମହଲକୁ ଯାତାୟାତ ପାଇଁ ୫୭ଟି ଲିଫ୍ଟ ତଥା ୮ଟି ଏସ୍କେଲେଟର ଖଞ୍ଜା ଯାଇଛି । 

ନୁର୍ଜ ଖାଲିଫାରୁ ଦୁବାଇ ସହରର ସାନ୍ଧ୍ୟ କାଳୀନ ଦୃଶ୍ୟ

ମୂଳ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବୁର୍ଜ ଦୁବାଇରେ ୩୦,୦୦୦ ବାସଗୃହ , ୯ଟି ହୋଟେଲ , ୩ ହେକ୍ଟର ବିଶିଷ୍ଟ ପାର୍କ ,ବାଣିଜ୍ୟ କେନ୍ଦ୍ର , ଏକ କୁତ୍ରିମ ହ୍ରଦ ପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା କରାଯାଇଛି । ଏହାକୁ ଏକ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟଟକ ସ୍ଥଳ ଭାବରେ ଦୁବାଇକୁ ଅଧିକ ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ କରିବାକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଉଛି । 

ସମାରାରେ ଥିବା ସ୍ପିରିଟ ମିନାର 
  • Tallest existing structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously KVLY-TV mast – 628.8 m or 2,063 ft)
  • Tallest structure ever built: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast – 646.38 m or 2,121 ft)
  • Tallest freestanding structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m or 1,815 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper (to top of spire): 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously Taipei 101 – 509.2 m or 1,671 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper to top of antenna: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously the Willis (formerly Sears) Tower – 527 m or 1,729 ft)
  • Building with most floors: 163 (previously World Trade Center – 110)
  • Building with world's highest occupied floor: 584.5 m (1,918 ft)
  • World's highest elevator installation (situated inside a rod at the very top of the building)
  • World's longest travel distance elevators: 504 m (1,654 ft)
  • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft)
  • World's tallest structure that includes residential space
  • World's highest observation deck: 148th floor at 555 m (1,821 ft)
  • World's highest outdoor observation deck: 124th floor at 452 m (1,483 ft)
  • World's highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade: 512 m (1,680 ft)
  • World's highest nightclub: 144th floor
  • World's highest restaurant (At.mosphere): 122nd floor at 442 m (1,450 ft) (previously 360, at a height of 350 m (1,148 ft) in CN Tower)
  • World's highest New Year display of fireworks.
  • World's second highest swimming pool: 76th floor (world's highest swimming pool is located on 118th floor of Ritz-Carlton Hotel at International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong).

ଉତ୍ଛ ନିର୍ମାଣ ସବୁର ଇତିହାସ [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Architecture and design[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Cross-section comparisons of various towers. From top to bottom: Burj Khalifa, Taipei 101, Willis Tower, World Trade Center.
The spiral minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra

Features[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The Dubai Fountain[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The Dubai Fountain

Observation deck[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

View of The Dubai Fountain from the observation deck
View from the observation deck
Floors Use 100%

Dimetric projection with floors colour-coded by function

160–163 Mechanical
156–159 Communication and broadcast
155 Mechanical
149–154 Corporate suites
148 The New Deck observatory
139–147 Corporate suites
136–138 Mechanical
125–135 Corporate suites
124 At the Top observatory
123 Sky lobby
122 At.mosphere restaurant
111–121 Corporate suites
109–110 Mechanical
77–108 Residential
76 Sky lobby
73–75 Mechanical
44–72 Residential
43 Sky lobby
40–42 Mechanical
38–39 Armani Hotel suites
19–37 Residential
17–18 Mechanical
9–16 Armani Residences
1–8 Armani Hotel
Ground Armani Hotel
Concourse Armani Hotel
B1–B2 Parking, mechanical

Construction[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Aerial closeup of Burj Khalifa under construction in March 2008

Milestones[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Burj Khalifa and skyline of Dubai, 2010
  • January 2004: Excavation commences.
  • February 2004: Piling starts.
  • 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction.
  • March 2005: Structure of Burj Khalifa starts rising.
  • June 2006: Level 50 is reached.
  • February 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower as the building with the most floors.
  • 13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 m (1,483 ft), surpassing the 449.2 m (1,474 ft) to which concrete was pumped during the construction of Taipei 101, while Burj Khalifa reached the 130th floor.
  • 21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of 509.2 m (1,671 ft) made it the world's tallest building, and level 141 reached.
  • 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands 527 m (1,729 ft).
  • 12 September 2007: At 555.3 m (1,822 ft), becomes the world's tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the CN Tower in Toronto, and level 150 reached.
  • 7 April 2008: At 629 m (2,064 ft), surpasses the KVLY-TV Mast to become the tallest man-made structure, level 160 reached.
  • 17 June 2008: Emaar announces that Burj Khalifa's height is over 636 m (2,087 ft) and that its final height will not be given until it is completed in September 2009.
  • 1 September 2008: Height tops 688 m (2,257 ft), making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.
  • 17 January 2009: Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).
  • 1 October 2009: Emaar announces that the exterior of the building is completed.
  • 4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa's official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa in honour of the President of the UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan.
  • 10 March 2010 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Burj Khalifa as world's tallest building.

ପୁରସ୍କାର [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଜୁନ ୨୦୧୦ରେ ବୁର୍ଜ ଖାଲିଫ " ମଧ୍ୟ ପ୍ରାଚ୍ୟ ଓ ଆଫ୍ରିକାର ସର୍ବୋକୃଷ୍ଟ ଉଟ୍ଚ ମହଲ' ହିସାବ ରେସିଟିବିଇଉଏଚଦ୍ୱାରା ପୁରସ୍କୃତ ହେଇଥିଲା 

ବାହ୍ୟ ଆଧାର ସମୂହ [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. http://www.burjkhalifa.ae/en/around-the-burj/news-detail.aspx?itemId=tcm:186-12866
  2. ଆଧାର ଭୁଲ: ଅଚଳ <ref> ଚିହ୍ନ; opening ନାମରେ ଥିବା ଆଧାର ଭିତରେ କିଛି ଲେଖା ନାହିଁ ।
  3. Stanglin, Douglas (2 ଜାନୁଆରୀ 2010). "Dubai opens world's tallest building". Dubai: USA Today. Retrieved 4 ଜାନୁଆରୀ 2010.
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ ୪.୨ ୪.୩ ୪.୪ ୪.୫ ୪.୬ "Burj Khalifa – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
  5. Baldwin, Derek (1 ମଇ 2008). "No more habitable floors to Burj Dubai". Gulfnews. Retrieved 7 ଜାନୁଆରୀ 2010.
  6. "The Burj Khalifa". Glass, Steel and Stone. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
  7. Blum, Andrew (27 ନଭେମ୍ବର 2007). "Engineer Bill Baker Is the King of Superstable 150-Story Structures". Wired. Retrieved 11 ମାର୍ଚ୍ଚ 2008.
  8. ୮.୦ ୮.୧ ୮.୨ ୮.୩ "Burj Dubai (Dubai Tower) and Dubai Mall, United Arab Emirates". designbuild-network.com. Retrieved 23 ମାର୍ଚ୍ଚ 2009.