ଛାଞ୍ଚ:ଆଧାର

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
(ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Reflist ରୁ ଲେଉଟି ଆସିଛି)
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]

This citation template provides formatting and organizational features for footnotes. It encapsulates the <references /> tag used by the Cite.php MediaWiki extension to show the list of references as defined by <ref> tags. It adds support for sizing the column width, groups and List-defined references.

Parameters[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

There are no required parameters; if none are supplied, a single-column list will be generated if there are fewer than 10 references in the list. If you have more than 10 references, it will use columns of 30em wide if your device allows this.

Optional parameters are:

  • Unnamed parameter (must be the first one if used): the minimum width for each column of references, typically in ems. Syntax (for example) |30em with no space (i.e. not |30 em).
  • refs: used with List-defined references.
  • group: identifies by name the subset of references to be rendered; the value should correspond to that used inline, e.g., {{Reflist|group=groupname}} renders all references with groupname as the group name (<ref group=groupname>). There are five pre-defined group names that style the list differently. See § Grouped references below.
  • liststyle: specifies the style used when the reference list is rendered. The default is a numbered list. When set, it will override the style set by the |group= parameter, without affecting group functionality. See § List styles below.

Usage[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Using only footnote-style references
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

Lorem ipsum.[୧] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
Using only bibliographical style references (no direct references from the text)
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

==References==
{{Refbegin}}
* reference 1
* reference 2
{{Refend}}

Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

References
  • reference 1
  • reference 2
Using both footnote-style and bibliography-style references
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

{{Refbegin}}
* reference 1
* reference 2
{{Refend}}

Lorem ipsum.[୧] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
  • reference 1
  • reference 2

Columns[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

{{Reflist|30em}} (for example) instructs the browser to create as many columns as possible (of width at least 30 em, in this example) given the width of the display window. (Units supported are em, ex, in, cm, mm, pt, pc, px, but em is almost always used.) There must not be a space between the number and the unit.

Choose a width appropriate to the typical width of the references:

Example[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

15em wide columns (vary width of display window to see change in number of columns)
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist|15em}}

Lorem ipsum.[୧] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୩] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୪] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୫]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
  3. Source name, access date, etc.
  4. Source name, access date, etc.
  5. Source name, access date, etc.
  • Note 1: The syntax {{Reflist|2}} (for example), which specifies two columns of equal width regardless of the available display width, is deprecated (and is disabled for mobile view). When you use 1 or 2, the template will pretend you specified 30em. When using higher column counts, it will pretend you specified 25em.
  • Note 2: Browser support: Internet Explorer 10+, Microsoft Edge, Firefox 2+, Chrome 4+, Safari 3.1+, Opera 11.1+

List-defined references[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Further information: Help:List-defined references

A list of references may be defined within {{Reflist}} using the |refs= parameter, just like including named <ref name="...">...</ref> elements inside the <references>...</references> container.

Example[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Markup Renders as
This is reference 1.<ref name="refname1" />
This is reference 2.<ref name="refname2" />

==References==
{{Reflist|refs=
<ref name="refname1">content1</ref>
<ref name="refname2">content2</ref>
}}

This is reference 1.[1] This is reference 2.[2]

References
  1. content1
  2. content2

Grouped references[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

For more details on this topic, see WP:REFGROUP.

References can be grouped into separate sections (for explanatory notes, table references, and the like) via group=:

<ref group=groupname>

where groupname is (for example) notes or sources. The group name need not be enclosed in quotes; this differs from the footnote marker where quotes are required if the group name includes a space.

Each group used in the article must have a matching reference list:

{{Reflist|group=groupname}}

Predefined groups[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

For more details on this topic, see H:PREGROUP.

There are predefined group names that automatically set the labels in the footnote markers and the reference list to other styles. Thus, setting {{Reflist|group=lower-alpha}} will set the group to lower-alpha and will style the reference list with lower alpha characters. The matching footnote marker can be formed by <ref group=lower-alpha>...</ref>. This is made easier by a series of templates to set the group/label styles for the footnote marker and the reference list:

Group name Footnote marker template
or markup
Reference list template Sample labels
none <ref>...</ref> {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
none {{refn}} for nested references {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
lower-alpha {{efn}} {{notelist}} a b c d e f g h i j
upper-alpha {{efn-ua}} {{notelist-ua}} A B C D E F G H I J
lower-roman {{efn-lr}} {{notelist-lr}} i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
upper-roman {{efn-ur}} {{notelist-ur}} I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
lower-greek [a] {{efn-lg}} {{notelist-lg}} α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ
  1. Not supported by Internet Explorer 7 and below

List styles[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

technical details ପାଇଁ, Help:Cite link labels ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ ।

As noted in § Predefined groups, there are predefined groups that automatically add list styling. Using the listed templates is more convenient than using |liststyle=.

Reference lists are by default numbered lists. By using the |liststyle= parameter, you can control how the list is rendered. For example, using |liststyle=upper-roman will result in references being labeled with Roman numerals instead of decimal numbers. The parameter accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type as shown below.

CSS list-style-type values 
CSS 2.1 list-style-type values[୧]
none
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
disc
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
circle
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
square
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
decimal
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
decimal-leading-zero
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
lower-roman
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
upper-roman
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
lower-alpha
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
upper-alpha
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
lower-greek
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
armenian
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
georgian
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
CSS2 list-style-type values deprecated in CSS 2.1[୨]

...but still supported by some browsers.

hebrew
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
cjk-ideographic
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
hiragana
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
katakana
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
hiragana-iroha
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
katakana-iroha
  1. text
  2. text
  3. text
  4. text
Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No

It is possible to use |liststyle= so that the labels for the footnote marker and the reference list marker differ. This should be used with care as it can be confusing to readers. For example:

Markup Renders as
<ref group=note>Reference</ref>

{{Reflist|group=note|liststyle=lower-alpha}}

[note ୧]

  1. Reference

Interaction with images[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

In the unusual case of an image being placed to the left of a reference list, layout problems may occur on some browsers. This can be prevented by using the columns feature.

Technical details[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Font size[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The font size should reduce to 90% for most browsers, but may appear to show at 100% for Internet Explorer and possibly other browsers.[general ୧] As of December 21, 2010, the standard <references /> tag has the same font styling. The smaller font may be disabled through Preferences → Gadgets → Disable smaller font sizes of elements such as Infoboxes, Navboxes and References lists.

Browser support for columns[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

CSS3 multiple-column layout browser support
Property Internet
Explorer
Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
column-width
column-count
≥ 10
(2012)
≥ 1.5
(2005)
≥ 3
(2007)
≥ 1
(2008)
≥ 11.1
(2011)
columns ≥ 10
(2012)
≥ 9
(2011)
≥ 3
(2007)
≥ 1
(2008)
≥ 11.1
(2011)
break-before
break-after
break-inside
≥ 10
(2012)
No No No ≥ 11.1
(2011)

Multiple columns are generated by using CSS3, which is still in development; thus only browsers that properly support the multi-column property will show multiple columns with {{Reflist}}.[general ୨][general ୩]

These browsers support CSS3 columns:

These browsers do not support CSS3 columns:

Widows and orphans[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The use of columns can result in widows and orphans, where a citation at the bottom of a column may be split to the top of the next column. MediaWiki:Common.css includes CSS rules to prevent list items from breaking between columns. Widows may still show in extreme circumstances, such as a reference list formatted in columns where only a single reference is defined.

Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

==References==
{{Reflist|10em}}

Lorem ipsum.[୧] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.

Supporting CSS[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

{{Reflist}} uses a CSS rule in MediaWiki:Common.css to set the font size:

  • div.reflist { font-size: 90%; }

The following class is assigned by the template when column width is set:

  • .references-column-width

The following CSS properties are utilized using the {{column-width}} templates:

  • column-width CSS3 standard
  • -moz-column-width Mozilla CSS extension
  • -webkit-column-width Webkit CSS extension

Customizing the view[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Further information: Help:Reference display customization

By editing your CSS, the personal appearance of the reference list can be customized. From Preferences, select the Appearance tab, then on the selected skin select Custom CSS. After editing and saving, follow the instructions at the top of the page to purge. See Wikipedia:Skin#Customisation (advanced users) for more help.

Font size

The font size for all reference lists defaults to 90% of the standard size. To change it, add:

ol.references,
div.reflist,
div.refbegin {
  font-size: 90%;
}

Change 90% to the desired size.

Columns

To disable columns, add:

.references-column-width {
  -moz-column-width: auto !important;
  -webkit-column-width: auto !important;
  column-width: auto !important;
}

Column dividers

To add dividers (rules) between columns, add:

.references-column-width {
  -moz-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
  -webkit-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
  column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
}

You can alter the appearance of the dividers by changing the values.

Perennial suggestions[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Collapsing and scrolling

There have been a number of requests to add functionality for a collapsible or scrolling reference list. These requests have not been fulfilled due to issues with readability, accessibility, and printing. The applicable guidelines are at MOS:SCROLL. Links between the inline cite and the reference list do not work when the reference list is enclosed in a collapsed box.

To display the reference list in a scrollbox or collapsed per user, see Help:Reference display customization.

For discussion on previous attempts to do this with a template, see the discussions for Scrollref and Refbox.

Including the section title

There have been suggestions to include section header markup such as ==References==. This is inadvisable because:

Obsolete parameters[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

These parameters are no longer in use:

  • colwidth: Same as specifying a column-width for the first unnamed parameter. Replaced by width as unnamed first parameter.
  • close: Until 2014, the parameter |close=1 was used to work around a bug involving multiple uses of {{Reflist}} on the same page. When the bug was fixed, this was removed. (For multiple uses on talk pages and other non-article pages structured in sections, see {{Reflist-talk}}.)

Template data[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

TemplateData for ଆଧାର

This template displays the list of footnotes at the end of an article and provides additional formatting and organizing options. After hitting "Apply changes" and turning back to VE read mode, you will not see the references list. After hitting "Save page" and turning back to normal read mode the reference list will reappear with the changes applied, see T53146.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
Columns / Column width 1colwidth

Two modes supported. First mode (deprecated): integer number of fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered. Second mode: typographic unit of measurement such as 'em', specifying the width for the reference list columns, e.g. '33em'; spaced '33 em' will not be recognized

Default
1
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
Liststyle liststyle

Specifies the style used when the reference list is enumerated; accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type

Default
decimal
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
Group group

Group is an identifier which restricts the references that are shown. Without this parameter, this template only shows references with no group identifier. With a group identifier specified, only references with a matching group identifier are handled. The rest are left alone.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
List of references refs

Provides a space to define named references for use in the article. References defined in this space are not shown unless used somewhere in the article.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional

See also[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Variants

References[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. See User:Edokter/fonttest for a comparison of font sizes for various browsers; see previous discussions on changing the font size to resolve the IE issue.
  2. "CSS3 Multi-Column Thriller". December 30, 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  3. "CSS3 module: Multi-column layout". W3C. December 15, 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  4. "CSS Compatibility and Internet Explorer: Multi-column Layout". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
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