ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
(ୟୁନାଇଟେଡ କିଙ୍ଗଡମରୁ ଲେଉଟି ଆସିଛି)
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ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଜାତୀୟ ପତାକା
ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଅବସ୍ଥିତି
ବୃହତ୍ ବ୍ରିଟେନୀୟ ତଥା ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟାର୍ଲ୍ଯାଣ୍ଡୀୟ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ

A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue
Coat of arms containing shield and crown in centre, flanked by lion and unicorn
Flag Royal coat of arms­[note ୧]

March: Himno de Cantabria
ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Switcher
Location of the  ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ  (dark green)

in Europe  (dark grey)

ରାଜଧାନୀLondon
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500°N 0.117°W / 51.500; -0.117
ବୃହତ୍ତମ ସହରcapital
Official language
and national language
English
Recognised regional or minority languages[note ୩]
ଜାତି
(2011)
ଧର୍ମ
ଜାତୀୟତା
Constituent countries
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Boris Johnson
ବିଧାନ ମଣ୍ଡଳParliament
• ଉଚ୍ଚ ସଦନ
House of Lords
• ନିମ୍ନ ସଦନ
House of Commons
Formation
1535 and 1542
24 March 1603
1 May 1707
1 January 1801
5 December 1922
1 January 1973
31 January 2020
କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ
• ମୋଟ
242,495 km2 (93,628 sq mi)[୮] (78th)
• ଜଳଭାଗ (%)
1.34
ଲୋକସଂଖ୍ୟା
• 2019 estimate
increase 67,545,757[୯] (22nd)
• 2011 census
63,182,178[୧୦] (22nd)
• ଘନତା
270.7/km2 (701.1/sq mi) (50th)
ମୋଟ ଘରୋଇ ଉତ୍ପାଦ  (ସମତୁଲ୍ୟ କ୍ରୟଶକ୍ତି)2019 estimate
• ମୋଟ
$3.128 trillion[୧୧] (9th)
• ମୁଣ୍ଡପିଛା
$46,781[୧୧] (26th)
ମୋଟ ଘରୋଇ ଉତ୍ପାଦ (ସାଙ୍କେତିକ)2019 estimate
• ମୋଟ
$2.829 trillion[୧୧] (6th)
• ମୁଣ୍ଡପିଛା
$42,310[୧୧] (20th)
ଜିନି ଗୁଣାଙ୍କ  (2017)negative increase 33.1[୧୨]
medium · 33rd
ମାନବ ବିକାଶ ସୂଚନାଙ୍କ (2017)increase 0.922[୧୩]
very high · 14th
ମୁଦ୍ରାPound sterling[note ୬] (GBP)
ସମୟ ମଣ୍ଡଳUTC (Greenwich Mean Time, WET[note ୭])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time, WEST)
ତାରିଖ ସଜାଣିdd/mm/yy
yyyy-mm-dd (AD)[୧୪]
ଇଲେକ୍ଟ୍ରିସିଟି230 V–50 Hz
ରାସ୍ତା ଚାଲିବା ପାଖleft[note ୮]
ଟେଲିଫୋନ କୋଡ଼+44[note ୯]
Internet TLD.uk[note ୧୦]

ଗ୍ରେଟ୍ ବ୍ରିଟେନ୍ ଓ ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟାର୍ଲ୍ଯାଣ୍ଡ୍ର ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ,[୧୫] [note ୧୧] ବା ସାଧାରଣ ଭାବେ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ଇଉରୋପୀୟ ମୂଳ ଭୂଖଣ୍ଡର ପଶ୍ଚିମ ଉପକୂଳରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ଏକ ସାର୍ବଭୌମ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ବା ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରସଂଘ । ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଗ୍ରେଟ ବ୍ରିଟେନ ଦ୍ୱୀପ, ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ ଦ୍ୱୀପର ଉତ୍ତରପୂର୍ବ ଭାଗ ଏବଂ ଅନେକ ଛୋଟ ଦ୍ୱୀପ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ ।[୧୬] ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ୍ ଓ ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାାଣ୍ଡ୍ ସାଧାରଣତନ୍ତ୍ର ମଝିରେ ସ୍ଥଳ ସୀମା ରହିଛି । ଏହାଛଡ଼ା ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟକୁ ଆଟଲାଣ୍ଟିକ ମହାସାଗର ଘେରିରହିଛି । ଏହାର ପୂର୍ବରେ ଉତ୍ତର ସମୁଦ୍ର, ଦକ୍ଷିଣରେ ଇଂରାଜୀ ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ ଏବଂ ଦକ୍ଷିଣ-ପଶ୍ଚିମରେ କେଲଟିକ ସାଗର ରହିଛି । ଏହାର ବେଳା ବିଶ୍ୱର ୧୨ତମ ଦୀର୍ଘ ଉପକୂଳ । ଆଇରିସ ସାଗର ଗ୍ରେଟ ବ୍ରିଟେନ ଏବଂ ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡକୁ ଅଲଗା କରିଥାଏ । ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ମୋଟ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ ୨,୪୦,୦୦୦ ବର୍ଗ କି.ମି. ।

ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ଏକ ଏକକ ସଂସଦୀୟ ଗଣତନ୍ତ୍ର ଏବଂ ସାମ୍ବିଧାନିକ ଏକତନ୍ତ୍ର[note ୧୨][୧୭][୧୮] ଏହାର ଏକତନ୍ତ୍ରୀ ହେଲେ ରାଣୀ ଏଲିଜାବେଥ ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟ । ସେ ୧୯୫୨ ମସିହାରୁ ରାଜତ୍ବ କରିଆସିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ହେଉଛନ୍ତି ବିଶ୍ୱର ସବୁଠାରୁ ଅଧିକ ସମୟ ଧରି ଶାସନ କରିଥିବା ଶାସକ ।[୧୯] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ରାଜଧାନୀ ଲଣ୍ଡନ, ବିଶ୍ୱସ୍ତରୀୟ ନଗର ଓ ଆର୍ଥିକ କେନ୍ଦ୍ର ଏବଂ ଏହାର ଲୋକସଂଖ୍ୟା ୧.୦୩ କୋଟି ।[୨୦] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ଚାରୋଟି ଦେଶରେ ବିଭକ୍ତ: ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡ, ସ୍କଟଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ, ୱେଲ୍ସ ଏବଂ ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ[୨୧] ସେମାନଙ୍କର ରାଜଧାନୀସବୁ ଯଥାକ୍ରମେ ଲଣ୍ଡନ, ଏଡିନବର୍ଗ, କାର୍ଡିଫ ଏବଂ ବେଲଫାଷ୍ଟ । ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡ ବ୍ୟତୀତ ବାକି ଦେଶଗୁଡ଼ିକର ନିଜ ସ୍ୱୟଂଶାସିତ ସରକାର ରହିଛି,[୨୨] । ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଦେଶର ଅଲଗା ଅଲଗା ଶାସନ କ୍ଷମତା ମଧ୍ୟ ରହିଛି ।[୨୩][୨୪] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଅନ୍ୟ ପ୍ରମୁଖ ସହରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ବର୍ମିଙ୍ଗହାମ, ଗ୍ଲାସଗୋ, ଲିଡ୍ସ, ଲିଭରପୁଲ ଏବଂ ମାଞ୍ଚେଷ୍ଟର ଅନ୍ୟତମ ।

ଟୀକା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. An alternative variant of the Royal coat of arms is used in Scotland: [click to view image].
  2. There is no authorised version of the national anthem as the words are a matter of tradition; only the first verse is usually sung.[୧] No law was passed making "God Save the Queen" the official anthem. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. "God Save the Queen" also serves as the Royal anthem for certain Commonwealth realms. The words Queen, she, her, used at present (in the reign of Elizabeth II), are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male.
  3. Under the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Scots, Ulster Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Scottish Gaelic and Irish are officially recognised as regional or minority languages by the British Government for the purposes of the Charter.[୨] In addition, the Government provides some services and publishes documents in Welsh.[୩][୪][୫] See also Languages of the United Kingdom.
  4. "This category could include Polish responses from the country specific question for Scotland which would have been outputted to ‘Other White’ and then included under ‘White’ for UK ... ‘White Africans’ may also have been recorded under ‘Other White’ and then included under ‘White’ for UK."
  5. European Union since 1993.
  6. Some of the devolved countries, Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories issue their own sterling banknotes or currencies, or use another nation's currency. See List of British currencies for more information
  7. This excludes some of the UK's dependencies. See Time in the United Kingdom#British territories
  8. Except two overseas territories, Gibraltar and the British Indian Ocean Territory.
  9. Excludes most overseas territories
  10. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Other TLDs are used regionally
  11. Usage is mixed. The Guardian and Telegraph use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some organisations, including the British Government, prefer to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain
  12. The United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution but an unwritten one formed of Acts of Parliament, court judgments, traditions, and conventions.What is the UK Constitution?, The Constitution Unit of UCL, retrieved 6 February 2020

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. "National Anthem". Official web site of the British Royal Family. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  2. "List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148". Council of Europe. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  3. "Welsh language on GOV.UK – Content design: planning, writing and managing content – Guidance". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  4. "Welsh language scheme". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  5. "Welsh language scheme". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  6. "UNdata | record view | Population by religion, sex and urban/rural residence". data.un.org. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  7. Philby, Charlotte (12 December 2012). "Less religious and more ethnically diverse: Census reveals a picture of Britain today". The Independent. London.
  8. "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. [୧]
  10. "2011 UK censuses". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  11. ୧୧.୦ ୧୧.୧ ୧୧.୨ ୧୧.୩ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects – United Kingdom". International Monetary Fund. April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  12. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  13. "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  14. See Date and time notation in the United Kingdom.
  15. United Kingdom Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (May 2017). "Toponymic guidelines for the United Kingdom". GOV.UK. 10.2 Definitions. usually shortened to United Kingdom ... The abbreviation is UK or U.K.
  16. "Definition of Great Britain in English". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 October 2014. Great Britain is the name for the island that comprises England, Scotland and Wales, although the term is also used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.
  17. The British Monarchy, "What is constitutional monarchy?". Retrieved 17 July 2013
  18. "United Kingdom" CIA The World Factbook]. Retrieved 17 July 2013
  19. PA (13 October 2016). "Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies". AOL (UK). Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  20. The 30 Largest Urban Agglomerations Ranked by Population Size at Each Point in Time, 1950–2030, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 revision Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  21. "Countries within a country". Prime Minister's Office. 10 January 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  22. "Devolution of powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland". United Kingdom Government. Retrieved 17 April 2013. In a similar way to how the government is formed from members from the two Houses of Parliament, members of the devolved legislatures nominate ministers from among themselves to comprise executives, known as the devolved administrations...
  23. "Fall in UK university students". BBC News. 29 January 2009.
  24. "Country Overviews: United Kingdom". Transport Research Knowledge Centre. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010.