ଯୁକ୍ତରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ଆମେରିକା ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ନିର୍ବାଚନ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
Jump to navigation Jump to search

ସବୁ ଗଣତନ୍ତ୍ରର ନିର୍ବାଚନ ପଦ୍ଧତି ଠାରୁ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ଆମେରିକା ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ଓ ଉପରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ନିର୍ବାଚନ ପଦ୍ଧତି ସମ୍ପ୍ପୂର୍ଣ ଭିନ୍ନ । ଏଥିରେ ସିଧାସଳଖ ଭୋଟ ନ ହେଇ ପଞ୍ଜୀକୃତ ଭୋଟର ମାନେ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ନିର୍ବାଚନ କଲେଜର ଏକ ସଦସ୍ୟ ଦଳଙ୍କୁ ଭୋଟ ଦିଅନ୍ତି । ଯେଉଁମାନେ ବିଜୟୀ ହୁଅନ୍ତି , ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ନିର୍ବାଚକ ( electot ) କୁହା ଯାଏ । ତା ପର ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟରେ ଏହି ସବୁ ନିର୍ବାଚକ ସିଧାସଳଖ ଭୋଟ ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ଓ ଉପରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ଯୋଡିଙ୍କୁ ନିର୍ବାଚନ କରନ୍ତି । ଯଦି ଏହି ନିର୍ବାଚନରେ କେହି ନିରଙ୍କୁଶ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ଗରିଷ୍ଠତା ନ ପାଆନ୍ତି , ତେବେ ପୁଣି ପ୍ରତିନିଧି ସଭା ( House of commons ) ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନିଏ କିଏ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ହେବେ । ଉପରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ପାଇଁ ସିନେଟ ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନିଏ ।  

ନିର୍ବାଚନ ଦିବସ : ଆମେରିକାରେ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ନିର୍ବାଚନ ପ୍ରତି ଚାରି ବର୍ଷରେ ଥରେ ହୁଏ । ଆମେରିକାର ସବିଧାନ ଅନୁସାରେ ଏହି ଦିବସ ସ୍ଥାୟୀ ଭାବରେ ନିର୍ଧାରିତ ହେଇଛି । ନଭେମ୍ବର ମାସର ପ୍ରଥମ ସୋମବାର ପରବର୍ତୀ ମଙ୍ଗଳନାର ହିଁ ନିର୍ବାଚନ ଦିବସ ରୂପେ ସ୍ଥିର ହୁଏ । ୨୦୧୬ରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ନିର୍ବାଚନ ପାଇଁ ସେହି ଅନୁସାରେ ନଭେମ୍ବର ୮ ତାରିଖ , ୨୦୧୬କୁ ସ୍ଥିରୀକୃତ ହେଇଛି । 

ନିର୍ବାଚନ  ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆବଶ୍ୟକୀୟ ଯୋଗ୍ୟତା [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଅମରିକୀୟ ସମ୍ବିଧାନ ବର୍ଣିତ "ପ୍ପ୍ରାକ୍ରୁତିକ ଭାବେ ଜନ୍ମିତ ନାଗରିକ "ର ବ୍ୟାଖ୍ୟା , ୧୭୮୭ରେ ପ୍ରକାଶିତ ହସ୍ତଲିଖିତ ଦଲିଲ 

ସମ୍ବିଧାନ ଅନୁସାରେ ଆମେରିକା ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ହେବା ପାଇଁ ଜେନ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ନିଶ୍ଚୟ ଅମରିକା ର "ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ଭାବେ ଜନ୍ମିତ ନାଗରିକ " ହେଇଥିବା ଦରକାର , ୩୫ ବର୍ଷରୁ ଉର୍ଦ୍ଧ ହେବା ଦରକାର , ଏବଂ ଆମେରିକାରେ ୧୪ ବର୍ଷରୁ ଉର୍ଦ୍ଧ ସମୟ ଅବସ୍ଥାନ କରି ସାରିଥିବା ଦରକାର । ପୁନଶ୍ଚ ୨୨ ତମ ସମ୍ବିଧାନ ସଂଶୋଧନ ଅନୁସାରେ ଜେନ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ୨ ଥରରୁ ଅଧିକ ଥର ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି ହେଇ ପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ ।

ସେହିପରି ଉପରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତି। ପ୍ରାର୍ଥୀ  ମଧ୍ୟ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତିଙ୍କ ପରି ସବୁ ଯୋଗ୍ୟତା ଥିବା ନିଧାର୍ଯ୍ୟ । 

୨୦୦୮ରେ ଗଣତନ୍ତ୍ରୀକ ଦଳର ପ୍ରାରମ୍ଭିକ ନିର୍ବାଚନ ସଭା IOWA ସହର ରେ 
ମାଡିସନ ସ୍କୋୟାର ବଗିଚା , ୧୯୭୮,୮୦ ଓ ୯୨ରେ ଗଣତନ୍ତ୍ର ଦଳର ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ସ୍ଥଳ ଓ ସମାଜବାଦୀ ଦଳର ୨୦୦୪ ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ସ୍ଥଳ 
୨୦୦୮ ପାଇଁ ସମାଜବାଦୀ ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ସ୍ଥଳ , ମିନେସୋଟା ସହର ରେ 

ଭୋଟ ପ୍ରଦାନ ପଦ୍ଧତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

୨୦୦୮ରେ ଟେକ୍ସସରେ ଜେନ ଭୋଟର ବୋତେ ଦଉଥିବାର ଦୃଶ୍ୟ

 ଇଲେକଟୋରାଳ କଲେଜ [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

୨୦୧୨ ନିର୍ବାଚନରେ ଗଣତାନ୍ତ୍ରିକ ପ୍ରାର୍ଥୀ ବାରକ ଓବାମା ଜିତିଥିବା ୩୩୨ ଇଲେକଟୋରଳ ଭୋଟ (ନୀଳ ରଙ୍ଗ ଚିହ୍ନିତ ) ଓ ତାଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତିଦ୍ବନ୍ଦୀ ମିଟ୍ଟ ରୋମନୀ ପାଇଥିବା ୨୦୬ ଭୋଟ (ଲାଲ ରଙ୍ଗ ଚିହ୍ନିତ )

ପୂର୍ବତନ ନିର୍ବାଚନ ମାନଙ୍କ ସାରଣୀ [ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Order Election year Winner Other major candidates[୧]
1st 1788–1789 George Washington (no party) – 69 electoral votes John Adams** (no party) – 34 electoral votes

John Jay (no party) – 9
Robert H. Harrison (no party) – 6
John Rutledge (no party) – 6

2nd 1792 George Washington (no party) – 132 John Adams** (Federalist) – 77

George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 50

3rd 1796 John Adams (Federalist) – 71 Thomas Jefferson** (Democratic-Republican) – 68

Thomas Pinckney (Federalist) – 59
Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican) – 30
Samuel Adams (Democratic-Republican) – 15
Oliver Ellsworth (Federalist) – 11
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 7

4th 1800 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) – 73[୨] Aaron Burr** (Democratic-Republican) – 73[୨]

John Adams (Federalist) – 65
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 64

5th 1804 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) – 162 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 14
6th 1808 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) – 122 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 47

George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 6
James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 0

7th 1812 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) – 128 DeWitt Clinton (Federalist) – 89
8th 1816 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 183 Rufus King (Federalist) – 34
9th 1820 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 228/231 [୩] John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican) – 1
10th 1824*† John Quincy Adams* (Democratic-Republican) – 84[୪] Andrew Jackson† (Democratic-Republican) – 99[୪]

William H. Crawford (Democratic-Republican) – 41
Henry Clay (Democratic-Republican) – 37

11th 1828 Andrew Jackson (Democratic) – 178 John Quincy Adams (National Republican) – 83
12th 1832 Andrew Jackson (Democratic) – 219 Henry Clay (National Republican) – 49

John Floyd (Nullifier) – 11
William Wirt (Anti-Masonic) – 7

13th 1836 Martin Van Buren (Democratic) – 170 William Henry Harrison (Whig) – 73

Hugh Lawson White (Whig) – 26
Daniel Webster (Whig) – 14
Willie Person Mangum (Whig) – 11

14th 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig) – 234 Martin Van Buren (Democratic) – 60
15th 1844* James K. Polk* (Democratic) – 170 Henry Clay (Whig) – 105

James G. Birney (Liberty) – 0

16th 1848* Zachary Taylor (Whig) – 163 Lewis Cass (Democratic) – 127

Martin Van Buren (Free Soil) – 0

17th 1852 Franklin Pierce (Democratic) – 254 Winfield Scott (Whig) – 42

John P. Hale (Free Soil) – 0

18th 1856* James Buchanan* (Democratic) – 174 John C. Frémont (Republican) – 114

Millard Fillmore (American Party/Whig) – 8

19th 1860* Abraham Lincoln* (Republican) – 180 John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democratic) – 72

John Bell (Constitutional Union) – 39
Stephen A. Douglas (Northern Democratic) – 12

20th 1864[୫] Abraham Lincoln (National Union) – 212 George B. McClellan (Democratic) – 21
21st 1868 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) – 214 Horatio Seymour (Democratic) – 80
22nd 1872 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) – 286 Horace Greeley (Democratic/Liberal Republican) – 0[୬]

Thomas A. Hendricks (Democratic) – 42
B. Gratz Brown (Democratic/Liberal Republican) – 18
Charles J. Jenkins (Democratic) – 2

23rd 1876*‡ Rutherford B. Hayes* (Republican) – 185 Samuel J. Tilden‡ (Democratic) – 184
24th 1880* James A. Garfield* (Republican) – 214 Winfield Scott Hancock (Democratic) – 155

James Weaver (Greenback) – 0

25th 1884* Grover Cleveland* (Democratic) – 219 James G. Blaine (Republican) – 182

John St. John (Prohibition) – 0
Benjamin Franklin Butler (Greenback) – 0

26th 1888*† Benjamin Harrison* (Republican) – 233 Grover Cleveland† (Democratic) – 168

Clinton B. Fisk (Prohibition) – 0
Alson Streeter (Union Labor) – 0

27th 1892* Grover Cleveland* (Democratic) – 277 Benjamin Harrison (Republican) – 145

James Weaver (Populist) – 22
John Bidwell (Prohibition) – 0

28th 1896 William McKinley (Republican) – 271 William Jennings Bryan (Democratic/Populist) – 176
29th 1900 William McKinley (Republican) – 292 William Jennings Bryan (Democratic) – 155

John Woolley (Prohibition) – 0

30th 1904 Theodore Roosevelt (Republican) – 336 Alton B. Parker (Democratic) – 140

Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Silas C. Swallow (Prohibition) – 0

31st 1908 William Howard Taft (Republican) – 321 William Jennings Bryan (Democratic) – 162

Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Eugene W. Chafin (Prohibition) – 0

32nd 1912* Woodrow Wilson* (Democratic) – 435 Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive) – 88

William Howard Taft (Republican) – 8
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Eugene W. Chafin (Prohibition) – 0

33rd 1916* Woodrow Wilson* (Democratic) – 277 Charles Evans Hughes (Republican) – 254

Allan L. Benson (Socialist) – 0
James Hanly (Prohibition) – 0

34th 1920 Warren G. Harding (Republican) – 404 James M. Cox (Democratic) – 127

Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0

35th 1924 Calvin Coolidge (Republican) – 382 John W. Davis (Democratic) – 136

Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Progressive) – 13

36th 1928 Herbert Hoover (Republican) – 444 Al Smith (Democratic) – 87
37th 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) – 472 Herbert Hoover (Republican) – 59

Norman Thomas (Socialist) – 0

38th 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) – 523 Alf Landon (Republican) – 8

William Lemke (Union) – 0

39th 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) – 449 Wendell Willkie (Republican) – 82
40th 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic) – 432 Thomas E. Dewey (Republican) – 99
41st 1948* Harry S. Truman* (Democratic) – 303 Thomas E. Dewey (Republican) – 189

Strom Thurmond (States' Rights Democratic) – 39
Henry A. Wallace (Progressive/Labor) – 0

42nd 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) – 442 Adlai Stevenson (Democratic) – 89
43rd 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) – 457 Adlai Stevenson (Democratic) – 73
44th 1960* John F. Kennedy* (Democratic) – 303 Richard Nixon (Republican) – 219

Harry F. Byrd (Democratic) – 15[୭]

45th 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic) – 486 Barry Goldwater (Republican) – 52
46th 1968* Richard Nixon* (Republican) – 301 Hubert Humphrey (Democratic) – 191

George C. Wallace (American Independent) – 46

47th 1972 Richard Nixon (Republican) – 520 George McGovern (Democratic) – 17

John G. Schmitz (American) – 0
John Hospers (Libertarian) – 1

48th 1976 Jimmy Carter (Democratic) – 297 Gerald Ford (Republican) – 240
49th 1980 Ronald Reagan (Republican) – 489 Jimmy Carter (Democratic) – 49

John B. Anderson (no party) – 0
Ed Clark (Libertarian) – 0

50th 1984 Ronald Reagan (Republican) – 525 Walter Mondale (Democratic) – 13
51st 1988 George H. W. Bush (Republican) – 426 Michael Dukakis (Democratic) – 111
52nd 1992* Bill Clinton* (Democratic) – 370 George H. W. Bush (Republican) – 168

Ross Perot (no party) – 0

53rd 1996* Bill Clinton* (Democratic) – 379 Bob Dole (Republican) – 159

Ross Perot (Reform) – 0

54th 2000*† George W. Bush* (Republican) – 271 Al Gore† (Democratic) – 266

Ralph Nader (Green) – 0

55th 2004 George W. Bush (Republican) – 286 John Kerry (Democratic) – 251
56th 2008 Barack Obama (Democratic) – 365 John McCain (Republican) – 173
57th 2012 Barack Obama (Democratic) – 332 Mitt Romney (Republican) – 206
  1. A “major candidate” is defined as a candidate receiving at least 1.0% of the total popular vote or more than one electoral vote for elections including and after 1824, or greater than 5 electoral votes for elections including and before 1820.
  2. ୨.୦ ୨.୧ Both Burr and Jefferson received the same number of electoral votes.
  3. There was a dispute as to whether Missouri's electoral votes in 1820 were valid, because of the timing of its assumption of statehood.
  4. ୪.୦ ୪.୧ None of the four presidential candidates in 1824 received a majority of the electoral vote, so the presidential election was decided by the House of Representatives
  5. Because of the American Civil War, all of the states in rebellion did not participate
  6. Greeley came in second in the popular vote but died before electoral votes were cast.
  7. Byrd was not directly on the 1960 ballot.

External links[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]