ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Reflist

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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For a full overview of this template in use, see Help:Footnotes

This citation template provides formatting and organizational features for footnotes. It encapsulates the <references /> tag used by the ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite.php MediaWiki extension to show the list of references as defined by <ref> tags. It adds support for a reduced font size, columns, groups and ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Ldr.

If you don't use any of the additional features, then it produces the same output as the simpler and slightly faster <references /> tag.

Parameters[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • First unnamed parameter:
column-count: a natural number specifying fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered. Example: |2|.
column-width: a typographic unit of measurement such as em, specifying the width for the reference list columns. Example: |30em|.
  • refs: used with named references (e.g., <ref name=name />); it specifies a list of some or all named references used in the article.
  • group: identifies by name the subset of references to be rendered; the value should correspond to that used inline, e.g., {{Reflist|group=groupname}} renders all references with groupname as the group name (<ref>).
  • liststyle: specifies the style used when the reference list is enumerated; if none is specified, the default is to render a numbered list.
  • close=1: forces the reference list to close and render all references defined to that point; see the section on multiple uses for details.

Usage[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Using only footnote-style references
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}
Lorem ipsum.[୧]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
Using only bibliographical style references (no direct references from the text)
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

==References==
{{Refbegin}}
* reference 1
* reference 2
{{Refend}}
Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
References
  • reference 1
  • reference 2
Using both footnote-style and bibliography-style references
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

{{Refbegin}}
* reference 1
* reference 2
{{Refend}}
Lorem ipsum.[୧]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
  • reference 1
  • reference 2

Columns[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Browser support: Internet Explorer 10+, Firefox 2+, Chrome 4+, Safari 3.1+, Opera 11.1+

Using {{Reflist|30em}} will create columns with a minimum width of 30 em, allowing the browser to automatically choose the number of columns based on the width of the web browser. Choose a column width that is appropriate for the average width of the references on the page. A width measurement must conform to the format given in CSS 2.1 Syntax and basic data types: Lengths; in particular, there must not be a space between the number and the unit.

Using {{Reflist|2}} will force creation of a two-column reference list, and {{Reflist|3}} will force creation of a three-column list, and so on. This feature is now deprecated in favor of the option described above, which is better suited to flexible formatting for a variety of display screen sizes, ranging from mobile phones and tablets to wide-screen "cinema" displays. Forcing a fixed number of columns has been disabled in mobile view. To identify articles using this deprecated feature, see Category:Articles using fixed number of columns in reflist.

Widows and orphans[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The use of columns can result in widows and orphans, where a citation at the bottom of a column may be split to the top of the next column. MediaWiki:Common.css includes CSS rules to avoid list items from breaking between columns. Widows may still show in extreme circumstances, such as a reference list formatted in columns where only a single reference is defined.

Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

==References==
{{Reflist|3}}
Lorem ipsum.[୧]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.

Practices[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The number of columns to use is up to the editor, but some major practices include:

Examples[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Two columns
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist|2}}
Lorem ipsum.[୧]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.
30em wide columns
Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
Lorem ipsum.[୧]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୨]

References
  1. Source name, access date, etc.
  2. Source name, access date, etc.

List styles[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ମୂଳ ପୃଷ୍ଠା: Help:Cite link labels

Reference lists are by default numbered lists. By using the |liststyle= parameter, you can control how the list is rendered. For example, using |liststyle=upper-roman will result in items being prefixed with roman numerals instead of decimal numbers. The parameter accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type as shown below.

The citations in the reference list will show the default decimal styling if:

  • The value for |liststyle= does not exactly match one of the predefined values
  • The value for |liststyle= is enclosed by quotes
  • {{Reflist}} is indented with the : markup

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:CSS list-style-type values

Multiple uses[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Further information: HELP:MULTIREF

If {{Reflist}} is used multiple times without a parameter, each subsequent use will confusingly repeat the output of the first instance due to template caching. This may also result in an error message:

<ref> ଚିହ୍ନ ରହିଅଛି, କିନ୍ତୁ <references/> ଚିହ୍ନଟି ମିଳିଲା ନାହିଁ

Where a page included multiple uses of {{Reflist}}, or a variant such as {{Notelist}}, each subsequent use should include at least one named parameter, such as refs or group. If these parameters are not appropriate, then the practice is to use {{Reflist|close=1}}. Do not use close without the =1, as it will be parsed into the column-width.


List-defined references[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Further information: Help:List-defined references

A list of references may be defined within {{Reflist}} using the |refs= parameter, just like including named <ref name="...">...</ref> elements inside the <references>...</references> container. This has been available since September 2009. There are new error messages associated with this feature, documented at Help:Cite errors, including one for references defined in {{Reflist}} but not used within the body.

Example[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Markup Renders as
This is reference 1.<ref name="refname1" />

This is reference 2.<ref name="refname2" />

==References==
{{Reflist|refs=
<ref name="refname1">content1</ref>
<ref name="refname2">content2</ref>
}}
This is reference 1.[decimal ୧]

This is reference 2.[decimal ୨]

References
  1. content1
  2. content2

Grouped references[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Further information: WP:REFGROUP

As of June 2008, the footnotes system supports the separation of references into groups. This allows groups for explanatory notes, table references and the like.

The general format for the reference tag is:

<ref group="groupname">

And using |group= for the reflist:

{{Reflist|group="groupname"}}
Where groupname is a group identifier such as "notes", "nb" or "label".

There are three pre-defined group names that will automatically cause the link labels and this template to display other characters instead of numbers (see List styles above). These are: "lower-alpha" (a, b, c...), "lower-greek" (α, β, γ...) and "lower-roman" (i, ii, iii...) and must be written without quotes.

Image flow issues[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Reflist hide When an image is inserted to the left of the reference list, the list may flow under the image, clipping the reference numbers or hiding them behind the image frame, depending upon the browser.

Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>

==References==
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
{{Reflist}}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୧][୨]
References
Example.png
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

To resolve this issue, use the columns feature. If columns are not desired, simply set it to one column using {{reflist|1}}. Note that if the list is longer than the image, it will cause the space below the image to remain empty. It is recommended that a comment be added so that follow-on editors will understand the use.

Markup Renders as
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>

==References==
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
{{Reflist|1}}<!--Set one column to resolve flow issues with left floated image.-->
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[୧][୨]
References
Example.png
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

Technical details[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Font size[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The font size should reduce to 90% for most browsers, but may appear to show at 100% for Internet Explorer and possibly other browsers.[୧] As of December 21, 2010, the standard <references /> tag has the same font styling. The smaller font may be disabled through ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Myprefs.

Browser support for columns[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Shortcut:
ଛାଞ୍ଚ:CSS3 multiple column layout

Multiple columns are generated by using CSS3, which is still in development; thus only browsers that properly support the multi-column property will show multiple columns with {{Reflist}}.[୨][୩]

These browsers support CSS3 columns:

These browsers do not support CSS3 columns:

  • Microsoft Trident-based browsers including Internet Explorer through to version 9[୪]
  • Opera through to version 11

Supporting CSS[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

{{Reflist}} uses a CSS rule in MediaWiki:Common.css to set the font size:

  • div.reflist { font-size: 90%; }

One of the following classes is assigned by the template when either column count or column width is set:

  • .references-column-count and .references-column-count-n (where n is the number of columns)
  • .references-column-width

The following CSS properties are utilized using the {{column-count}} and {{column-width}} templates:

  • column-count CSS3 standard
  • column-width CSS3 standard
  • -moz-column-count Mozilla CSS extension
  • -moz-column-width Mozilla CSS extension
  • -webkit-column-count Webkit CSS extension
  • -webkit-column-width Webkit CSS extension

Customizing the view[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

By editing your CSS, the personal appearance of the reference list can be customized. From Preferences, select the Appearance tab, then on the selected skin select Custom CSS. After editing and saving, follow the instructions at the top of the page to purge. See Wikipedia:Skin#Customisation (advanced users) for more help.

Font size

The font size for all reference lists defaults to 90% of the standard size. To change it, add:

ol.references,
div.reflist,
div.refbegin {
  font-size: 90%;
}

Change 90% to the desired size.

Columns

To disable columns, add:

.references-column-count, .references-column-width {
  column-count: 1 !important;
  column-width: auto !important;
  -moz-column-count: 1 !important;
  -moz-column-width: auto !important;
  -webkit-column-count: 1 !important;
  -webkit-column-width: auto !important;
}

Similarly, to force all reference lists to a number of columns, change the number.

Column dividers

To add dividers (rules) between columns, add:

.references-column-count, .references-column-width {
  column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
  -moz-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
  -webkit-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
}

You can alter the appearance of the dividers by changing the values.

Perennial suggestions[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Collapsing and scrolling

There have been a number of requests to add functionality for a collapsible or scrolling reference list. These requests have not been fulfilled due to issues with readability, accessibility, and printing. The applicable guidelines are at MOS:SCROLL. Links between the inline cite and the reference list do not work when the reference list is enclosed in a collapsed box.

To display the reference list in a scrollbox or collapsed per user, see Help:Reference display customization.

For discussion on previous attempts to do this with a template, see the discussions for Scrollref and Refbox.

Including the section title

There have been suggestions to include section header markup such as ==References==. This is inadvisable because:

  • There is no standard section name; see WP:FNNR.
  • When transcluded, the article will have an edit link that will confusingly open the template for editing.

Template data[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:TemplateDataHeader

This template displays the list of footnotes at the end of an article and provides additional formatting and organizing options.

Template parameters
Parameter Description Type Default Status
Columns / Column width 1colwidth Two modes supported. First mode: integer number of fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered. Second mode: typographic unit of measurement such as 'em', specifying the width for the reference list columns, e.g. '33em'; note that '33 em' will not be recognized string 1 optional
Liststyle liststyle Specifies the style used when the reference list is enumerated; accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type string decimal optional
Close close When set to '1', forces the reference list to close and render all references defined to that point; useful if including more than one Reflist call number empty optional
Group group Group is an identifier which restricts the references that are shown. Without this parameter, this template only shows references with no group identifier. With a group identifier specified, only references with a matching group identifier are handled. The rest are left alone. string empty optional
List of references refs Provides a space to define named references for use in the article. References defined in this space are not shown unless used somewhere in the article. string empty optional

See also[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Variants

  • {{Template reference list}} – version of reflist for use in templates
  • {{Reflist-talk}} – for use on talk pages
  • {{Notelist}} – for use with explanatory notes; sets |group=lower-alpha
  • {{Notelist-ua}} – for use with explanatory notes; sets |group=upper-alpha
  • {{Notelist-lr}} – for use with explanatory notes; sets |group=lower-roman

References[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. See User:Edokter/fonttest for a comparison of font sizes for various browsers; see previous discussions on changing the font size to resolve the IE issue.
  2. "CSS3 Multi-Column Thriller". December 30, 2005. http://www.stuffandnonsense.co.uk/archives/css3_multi-column_thriller.html. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  3. "CSS3 module: Multi-column layout". W3C. December 15, 2005. http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-multicol/. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  4. "CSS Compatibility and Internet Explorer: Multi-column Layout". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc351024(VS.85).aspx#multicolumn. Retrieved March 16, 2011.