ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ:Citation templates

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ


"WP:CT" ଏଠାକୁ ମୁହାଁଇଥାଏ । WikiProject Connecticut, WP:CONN
See also: WP:Template messages/Cleanup/Verifiability and sources for cleanup request templates, such as "citation needed" and many more.
See also: Handy tools for making references in cite templates: MakeRef, Diberri's template filler, WP:RefToolbar

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way, as an alternative to formatting the citations by hand. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not add citation templates, or change an article with a consistent citation format to another, without gaining consensus; see WP:CITECONSENSUS and WP:CITEVAR. The various citation templates below may be freely mixed, since they all produce a similar format.

Introduction[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Wikipedia does not dictate a particular way to insert citations into an article. As a result, there are multiple ways to structure citations in an article; multiple ways to insert individual citations; and multiple ways to link short-form inline citations with the full-form citations in the bibliography, when using a style that calls for short-form citations.

There are three primary ways to format individual citations:

  1. By hand. When using inline citations (see below), these are simply typed directly; however, when using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, these can be surrounded with {{wikicite}} to ensure that the appropriate shortened references are linked to the full references below.
  2. Using the {{Cite *}} templates, such as {{Cite book}}, {{Cite web}}, {{Cite journal}}, or {{Cite news}}.
  3. Using the generic {{Citation}} template.

The main differences between the generic {{Citation}} template and the specific {{Cite *}} templates are:

  1. The {{Cite *}} templates produce citations with individual sections (e.g. title, author, publisher, etc.) separated by periods, with a trailing period, while {{Citation}} separates sections with a comma and has no trailing punctuation. (However, this can be changed using the |separator= and |postscript= parameters.)
  2. Not all {{Cite *}} templates can easily be replaced by the {{Citation}} template. Generally, any {{Cite *}} template of a general nature (e.g. book; web site; journal or newspaper article; article in an edited collection or encyclopedia; etc.) can be replaced, but specialized templates (court cases, comic books, video games, etc.) cannot very easily.
  3. Some of the parameter names differ. For example, citing an article in an edited collection uses the misnamed {{Cite encyclopedia}} template, with |title= for the article name and |encyclopedia= for the collection name; the equivalent parameters in {{Citation}} are named contribution and title, respectively.
  4. When using parenthetical referencing, a {{Harv*}} template that identifies a citation by author and year will automatically link to the appropriate citation elsewhere in the article if created using {{Citation}}. If created using {{Cite *}}, however, a |ref=harv parameter must be added.

There are also at least three ways to structure citations as a whole in an article:

  1. Inline citations. These simply place the citation inside of a <ref>…</ref> reference, which inserts a small bracketed, superscripted number. When clicked on, it links to a correspondingly-numbered footnote (more properly an endnote) placed elsewhere in the article. The footnotes themselves are inserted using {{reflist}}, which is typically placed by itself in a Notes (or References) section near the end of the article. When there are multiple references to the same citation, typing can be saved by using <ref name="foo">…</ref> the first time, and just <ref name="foo"/> elsewhere. When there are citations that differ only in page number, there are two alternatives: write all the citations out in full, including the page number, or use one citation without page numbers along with the {{rp}} template to add an inline page number after the small bracketed footnote number.
  2. Shortened footnotes. Instead of the full-form citation appearing in the footnote, a shortened form appears, giving only the author and year (or in some styles, a shortened version of the article or book title), and page number if appropriate. The full citation appears later on, in a bibliography section. This usually follows directly after the footnotes, is titled "References" or "Bibliography", and contains all relevant citations, listed in alphabetical order. This style is especially appropriate when there are large numbers of references overall and frequent cases of multiple references to the same work, especially in the presence of differing page numbers.
  3. Parenthetical references. These are conceptually similar to shortened footnotes, but the shortened reference appears inline in the text, in parentheses, rather than in a footnote.

When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, there are multiple ways to link the shortened and full-form references:

  1. Don't link them. This happens by default when the shortened references are typed in by hand.
  2. Insert manual links. These look like e.g. [[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006, p. 25]]. The anchor #refPereira2006 is attached to the full-form citation by surrounding it with {{wikicite}} (if inserted by hand), or adding a |ref= parameter to the citation template.
  3. Insert links using a {{Harv*}} template, e.g. {{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}. This will insert "Pereira 2006, p. 25" into the text and link it to the citation with the corresponding last name and year. As mentioned above, when using a {{Cite *}} template, the parameter |ref=harv must be added, but this is unnecessary for {{Citation}}. When using parenthetical references, the plain {{Harv}} template is used, which automatically inserts parentheses. Other variations format the page number or parentheses differently.
  4. Use the {{sfn}} template for the whole of the footnote. The {{sfn}} template creates its own named <ref>...</ref> tags: {{sfn|Pereira|2006|p=25}} is exactly equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006]], p. 25.</ref> which is itself equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>{{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}</ref>.

See also WP:Footnotes and WP:Citing sources for general information, and WP:CITEX for specific examples of exactly how to write the code for various combinations of the above styles.

Use in footnotes[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref> at the front of the citation and </ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice above the edit box there is a row of "markup" formatting buttons which include a <ref></ref> button to the right—if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup button, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags (i.e. <ref>citation</ref>).

Note, if this is a new page or if there are not already references previously cited, it is necessary to create a section usually named "Notes" or "References" near the end of the page; see WP:FNNR and MOS:APPENDIX for more information on section names:

== Notes ==
<references />

or

== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

See: Wikipedia:Manual of Style (footnotes) for more details.

Using the same footnote multiple times[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Optionally, one may add the name attribute by using <ref name=name>details of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding <ref name=name/>. Note that named references begin with <ref instead of the usual <ref>. For detailed examples, see WP:REFNAME.

Using multiple pages from the same source[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, most Wikipedia editors have chosen to use shortened footnotes (see WP:CITESHORT). An alternative method is to use the template {{rp}}.

Creating links to citations[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Wikilinks to citation templates can be created using the templates {{harv}}, {{harvnb}}, {{harvtxt}}, {{sfn}}, etc. For example this "Mumford 1999" links to a citation template below. This is of particular interest for inline citations using parenthetical referencing or when using shortened footnotes.[୧] (See the examples below or wikilinks to full references)

Using commas rather than periods[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

{{Citation}} creates a citation in the same format as most of the {{Cite ... }} templates, except that the periods are replaced with commas and there is no final period. A complete list of templates that are mimicked by {{citation}} can be found at {{citation/core}}. The parameters separator= and postscript= (available for most templates) can also be used to affect the punctuation.

Examples[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:See also cat Below are examples of how to use various templates to cite a book, encyclopedia, journal, website, comic strip, video and editorial comics, etc.

  • For full description of a template and the parameters which can be used with it—click the template name (e.g. {{Citation}} or {{Cite xxxx}}) in the "template (required)" column of the table below.
  • Required field(s) are indicated in bold
  • Copy and paste the text under "common usage" to use the template.
  • Following each example is the resulting article text.

For a list of tools that can help create some of the templates below, see: Wikipedia:Citation tools.

Citations are commonly embedded in reference templates. For more information, see: Wikipedia:Footnotes.

source template
(required)
common usage Example 1
article text
Example 2
article text
book {{Cite book}}
title
{{Cite book
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | publisher = 
  | series = 
  | volume = 
  | edition = 
  | date = 
  | location = 
  | pages = 
  | language = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | isbn =
  | mr = 
  | zbl = 
  | jfm = }}
{{Cite book
  | last = Mumford
  | first = David
  | authorlink = David Mumford
  | title = The Red Book of V…
  | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
  | series = Lecture Notes …
  | volume = 1358
  | edition = 2nd expanded
  | location = Berlin
  | date = 1999
  | page = 198
  | doi = 10.1007/b62130
  | isbn = 354063293X
  | mr = 1748380
  | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. 1358 (2nd expanded ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ପୃଷ୍ଠା. 198. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X. 

{{Cite book 
  | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
  | first2 = Jeff | last2 = Grubb
  | first3 =David | last3 = Noonan
  | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
  | location = Berlin
  | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
  | year= 2001
  | pages = 198-203
  | month = September
  | isbn = 0-7869-1850-8 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. Berlin: Wizards of the Coast. ପୃଷ୍ଠା. 198-203. ISBN 0-7869-1850-8. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | author-link = 
  | last2 = 
  | first2 = 
  | author2-link = 
  | title = 
  | place = 
  | publisher = 
  | series = 
  | volume = 
  | origyear =
  | year = 
  | month=
  | edition = 
  | chapter =
  | chapterurl =
  | page =
  | pages =
  | language = 
  | url = 
  | archiveurl =
  | archivedate =
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | isbn = 
  | mr = 
  | zbl = 
  | jfm = }}
{{Citation
  | first = David | last = Mu…
  | author-link = David Mumfo…
  | title = The Red Book of V…
  | place = Berlin
  | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
  | series = Lecture Notes …
  | volume = 1358
  | edition = 2nd expanded
  | year = 1999
  | page = 198
  | doi = 10.1007/b62130
  | isbn = 354063293X
  | mr = 1748380
  | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999), written at Berlin, The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes, 1358 (2nd expanded ed.), Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/b62130, ISBN 354063293X 

{{Citation
  | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
  | last2 = Grubb   | first2 = Jeff
  | last3 = Noonan  | first3 = David
  | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
  | place = Berlin
  | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
  |pages = 198-203
  | date = September 2001
  | year = 2001
  | isbn = 0-7869-1850-8 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001), written at Berlin, Manual of the Planes, Wizards of the Coast, ISBN 0-7869-1850-8 

journal
paper
thesis
dissertation
{{Cite journal}}
Title
{{Cite journal
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | journal = 
  | volume = 
  | issue = 
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | location = 
  | date = 
  | language = 
  | url = 
  | jstor =  
  | issn = 
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | mr = 
  | zbl = 
  | jfm = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite journal
  | authorlink = Stephen Brey…
  | title = Copyright: A Rejo…
  | journal = UCLA Law Review
  | volume = 20
  | pages = 75–83
  | date = October 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review 20: 75–83. 

{{Cite journal
  | last1 = Bailey  | first1 = David H.
  | author1-link = David H. Bailey
  | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
  | author2-link = Peter Borwein
  | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
  | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
  | title = The Quest for Pi
  | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
  | volume = 19
  | issue = 1
  | pages = 50–57
  | publisher = Springer-Verlag
  | location = Berlin
  | date = 25 June 1997
  | year = 1997
  | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
  | issn =0343-6993
  | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
  | mr = 1439159
  | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997). "The Quest for Pi". Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) 19 (1): 50–57. doi:10.1007/BF03024340. ISSN 0343-6993. http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf. 

{{Citation}}
journal (or periodical)
{{Citation
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | author-link = 
  | last2 = 
  | first2 = 
  | author2-link = 
  | title = 
  | journal = 
  | volume = 
  | issue = 
  | pages = 
  | date = 
  | origyear =
  | year = 
  | month =
  | language = 
  | url = 
  | jstor = 
  | archiveurl =
  | archivedate =
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | mr = 
  | zbl = 
  | jfm = }}
{{Citation
  | last = Breyer
  | first = Stephen
  | author-link = Stephen Bre…
  | title = Copyright: A Rejo…
  | journal = UCLA Law Review
  | volume = 20
  | pages = 75–83
  | date = October 1972
  | year = 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972), "Copyright: A Rejoinder", UCLA Law Review 20 

{{Citation
  | last1 = Bailey  | first1 = David H.
  | author1-link = David H. Bailey
  | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
  | author2-link = Peter Borwein
  | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
  | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
  | title = The Quest for Pi
  | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
  | volume = 19
  | issue = 1
  | pages = 50–57
  | publisher = Springer-Verlag
  | location = Berlin
  | date = 25 June 1997
  | year = 1997
  | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
  | issn =0343-6993
  | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
  | mr = 1439159
  | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997), written at Berlin, "The Quest for Pi", Mathematical Intelligencer (Springer-Verlag) 19 (1), doi:10.1007/BF03024340, http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf 

website {{Cite web}}
title
url
{{Cite web
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | work = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | format = 
  | doi = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite web
  | last = Spiegel
  | first = Rachel
  | title = Research: Thalido…
  | url=http://science-educat…
  | accessdate = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". http://science-education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/Thalidomide/index.html. Retrieved 30 April 2006. 

{{Cite web
| title = 
| url = 
| dateformat = mdy
| accessdate = }}

(Write date as Month Day Year; e.g., July 22 2009. Comma will be added automatically.)

{{Cite web
  | last = Hansen
  | first = James E.
  | authorlink = James E. Hansen
  | last2 = Ruedy  | first2 = R.
  | last3 = Sato   | first3 = M.
  | last4 = Lo     | first4 = K.
  | title = GISS Surface Temperature An…
  | work =
  | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for…
  | date = December 15, 2005
  | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis…
  | format =
  | doi =
  | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/. Retrieved September 28, 2006. 

{{Citation}}
title
url
{{Citation
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | author-link = 
  | last2 = 
  | first2 = 
  | author2-link = 
  | title = 
  | date = 
  | year = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Citation
  | last = Spiegel
  | first = Rachel
  | title = Research: Thalido…
  | url=http://science-educat…
  | accessdate = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel, Research in the News: Thalidomide, http://science-education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/Thalidomide/index.html 

{{Citation
  | last1 = Hansen | first1 = James E.
  | author1-link = James Hansen
  | last2 = Ruedy  | first2 = R.
  | last3 = Sato   | first3 = M.
  | last4 = Lo     | first4 = K.
  | title = GISS Surface Temperature An…
  | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for ...
  | date = December 15, 2005
  | year = 2005
  | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis…
  | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005), GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/ 

comic {{Cite comic}}[୨]
{{Cite comic
  | writer=
  | penciller=
  | inker=
  | story=
  | title=
  | volume= 
  | issue= 
  | date=
  | publisher=
  | page= 
  | panel= }}
{{Cite comic
| writer=[[Stan Lee|Lee, Stan]] 
| penciller=[[Jack Kirby|Kirby, Jack]] 
| inker=[[Christopher Rule|Rule, Christopher]] 
| story=The Fantastic Four! 
| title=[[Fantastic Four|The Fantastic Four]] 
| volume=1 
| issue=1 
| date=November, 1961 
| publisher=[[Marvel Comics]] 
| page=3 
| panel=2 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite comic

comic strip {{Comic strip reference}}[୩]
{{Comic strip reference
  | cartoonist=
  | strip=
  | paper=
  | location=
  | date=
  | supplement=
  | syndicate=
  | page= }}
{{Comic strip reference
  | cartoonist=[[Milton Caniff|Caniff, Milton]] 
  | strip=[[Steve Canyon]] 
  | paper=Journal Herald 
  | location=Dayton, OH 
  | date=July 15, 1967 
  | supplement=Color Comics Supplement 
  | syndicate=Newspaper Syndicate 
  | page=1 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Comic strip reference

conference
report
or paper
{{Cite conference}}
title
booktitle
{{Cite conference
  | first = 
  | last = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | booktitle = 
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | location = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite conference
  | first = M.
  | last = Turk
  | authorlink =
  | coauthors = Pentland, A.
  | title = Face recognition …
  | booktitle = Proc IEEE Con…
  | place = Maui, Hawaii
  | pages = 586–591
  | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Pentland, A. (1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces". Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Maui, Hawaii. pp. 586–591. 

{{Cite conference
  | last1 = Evans    | first1 = N. R.
  | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
  | last3 = Bond     | first3 = H.
  | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
  | last5 = Nelan    | first5 = E.
  | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
  | title = Direct detection of the ...
  | booktitle = American Astronomical Society 207th ...
  | publisher = AAS
  | date = January 9, 2006
  | url = http://www.aas.org/ ... 30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006). "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope". American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting. AAS. http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v37n4/aas207/1130.htm. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
  | first = 
  | last = 
  | author-link = 
  | first2 = 
  | last2 = 
  | author2-link = 
  | editor-last = 
  | editor-first = 
  | editor2-last = 
  | editor2-first = 
  | contribution = 
  | contribution-url = 
  | series = 
  | year = 
  | pages = 
  | place = 
  | publisher = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id = }}
{{Citation
  | last1 = Turk | first1 = M.
  | last2 = Pet… | first2 = A.
  | contribution = Face recog…
  | series = Proc IEEE Confere…
  | place = Maui, Hawaii
  | pages = 586–591
  | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Petland, A. (1991), "Face recognition using eigenfaces", written at Maui, Hawaii 

{{Citation
  | last1 = Evans    | first1 = N. R.
  | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
  | last3 = Bond     | first3 = H.
  | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
  | last5 = Nelan    | first5 = E.
  | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
  | contribution = Direct detection of …
  | series = American Astronomical…
  | publisher = AAS
  | date = January 9, 2006
  | contribution-url = http://…30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M. (January 9, 2006), "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope", AAS, http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v37n4/aas207/1130.htm 

court case (legal decision) {{Cite court}}
{{Cite court
  |litigants = 
  |vol = 
  |reporter = 
  |opinion = 
  |pinpoint = 
  |court = 
  |date = 
  |url= }}
{{Cite court
  |litigants=Roe v. Wade
  |vol=410
  |reporter=U.S.
  |opinion=113
  |pinpoint=
  |court=
  |date=1973
  |url=http://www.law.corn… }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite court

encyclopedia,
edited collection
{{Cite encyclopedia}}
Title
encyclopedia
{{Cite encyclopedia
  | title = 
  | encyclopedia = 
  | volume = 
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | id = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite encyclopedia
  | title = Kirkegaard…
  | encyclopedia = Grote Winkler Pri…
  | editor-last = Winkler Pri…
  | editor-first = Anthony
  | editor-link = Anthony Win…
  | volume = 9
  | publisher = Elsevier
  | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882). "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins 9. Elsevier. 

{{Cite encyclopedia
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | authorlink = Martin Kramer
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Bernard Lewis
  | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Hist…
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | location = London
  | date = 1999
  | url = http://www.oocities.com/mart… }}

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". In Boyd, Kelley. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720. 

{{Citation}}
contribution=name of article
{{Citation
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | contribution = 
  | year = 
  | title = 
  | editor-last = 
  | editor-first = 
  | volume = 
  | pages = 
  | place = 
  | publisher = 
  | id = }}
{{Citation
  | contribution = Kirkegaard…
  | title = Grote Winkler Pri…
  | editor-last = Winkler Pri…
  | editor-first = Anthony
  | editor-link = Anthony Win…
  | volume = 9
  | publisher = Elsevier
  | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882), "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund", Grote Winkler Prins, 9, Elsevier 

{{Citation
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | author-link = Martin Kramer
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians …
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | year = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://…is.htm }}

Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", written at London, in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, Fitzroy Dearborn, http://www.oocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 

episode
(television or radio)
{{Cite episode}}
title
{{Cite episode
| title        = 
| episodelink  = 
| url          = 
| series       = 
| serieslink   = 
| credits      = 
| network      = 
| station      = 
| city         = 
| airdate      = 
| began        = 
| ended        = 
| season       = 
| seriesno     =
| number       = 
| minutes      = 
| transcript   =  
| transcripturl= }}
{{Cite episode
| title        = BBC-TV Presents: …
| episodelink  = BBC Snooker World …
| url          = 
| series       = Wide World of Snooker
| serieslink   = Wide World of Snooker …
| credits      = Presenters: [[Dennis …
| network      = [[BBC]]
| station      = [[BBC Two]]
| city         = [[Sheffield]], …
| airdate      = 2008-04-27
| minutes      = 2:34}}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite episode

{{Cite episode
  | title = Duet
  | episodelink = Duet (Stargate Atlant…
  | series = Stargate Atlantis
  | serieslink = Stargate Atlantis
  | airdate = August 5, 2005
  | season = 2
  | number = 4 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite episode

mailing list {{Cite mailing list}}
title
url
{{Cite mailing list
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | title = 
  | mailinglist = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite mailing list
  |last=Murdock
  |first=Ian
  |authorlink=Ian Murdock
  |title=Debian GNU/Linux 0.9…
  |mailinglist=debian-announce
  |date=26 October 1995
  |url=http://lists.debian.or…
  |accessdate=20 April 2007 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite mailing list

map {{Cite map}}
publisher
title
edition
{{Cite map
  |publisher = 
  |title = 
  |url = 
  |edition = 
  |section = 
  |accessdate = }}
{{Cite map
  |publisher=Kansas Departmen…
  |title=Official State Trans…
  |url=http://www.ksdot.org/b… 
  |edition=2005-2006
  |section=F9 
  |accessdate=March 30, 2007 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite map

{{Cite map 
  |publisher=Skelly Oil Company 
  |title=Highway Map of Oklahoma 
  |cartography=Diversified Map Co 
  |edition=1966 
  |section=11C }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite map

news article {{Cite news}}
Title
{{Cite news 
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | newspaper = 
  | location =
  | pages = 
  | language = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite news 
  | last = Finn
  | first = Gary
  | title = What a growing lad needs is …
  | pages = 
  | newspaper = The Independent
  | location = London
  | date = 31 August 1998
  | url = http://www.independent.co.uk …
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998). "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/what-a-growing-lad-needs-is-a-naughty-book-says-blair-1175187.html. 

{{Cite news 
  | last = Andersen
  | first = David
  | coauthors = Witter, Lameen
  | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO…
  | work = Marine Corps News
  | date = 17 February 2006
  | url = http://www.military.com/Caree…
  | accessdate = 6 June 2006 }}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference. Retrieved 6 June 2006. 

{{Citation}}
newspaper (or magazine, journal, periodical)
{{Citation
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | author-link = 
  | last2 = 
  | first2 = 
  | author2-link = 
  | title = 
  | newspaper = 
  | pages = 
  | year = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | archiveurl =
  | archivedate =
  | accessdate = }}
{{Citation 
  | last = Finn
  | first = Gary
  | title = What a growing lad needs is …
  | pages = 
  | newspaper = The Independent
  | location = London
  | date = 31 August 1998
  | url =http://www.independent.co.uk …
  | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation …
  | archivedate = 2010-03-06
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998), written at London, "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair", The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/what-a-growing-lad-needs-is-a-naughty-book-says-blair-1175187.html 

{{Citation
  | last1 = Andersen | first1 = David
  | last2 = Witter   | first2 = Lameen
  | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO…
  | newspaper = Marine Corps News
  | date = 17 February 2006
  | year = 2006
  | url = http://www.military.com/Ca… 
  | accessdate = 2 June 2006 
}}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006), "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success", Marine Corps News, http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference 

newsgroup
posting
(DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY)
{{Cite newsgroup}}
Title
{{Cite newsgroup 
  | title = 
  | author = 
  | date = 
  | newsgroup = 
  | id = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite newsgroup 
  | author = Gary S. Terhune
  | title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del…
  | date = January 11, 2004
  | newsgroup = microsoft.pub…
  | id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2…
  | url = http://groups.googl…
  | accessdate = May 16, 2006 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite newsgroup

{{Cite newsgroup 
  | title = How can helping "Kids in Af…
  | author = Trodel
  | date = June 10, 2006
  | newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.ob…
  | id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g20…
  | url = http://groups.google.com/grou…
  | accessdate = July 3, 2006 }}

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite newsgroup

patent {{Citation}}
inventor-last
{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number = }}
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}

US 6266706, ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Citation/authors, "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

press release {{Cite press release}}
Title
{{Cite press release
  | title = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate = }}
{{Cite press release
  | title = Nature compares W…
  | publisher = The Wikimedia…
  | date = 15 December 2005
  | url = http://en.wikipedia…
  | accessdate = 3 July 2006 }}

"Nature compares Wikipedia and Britannica" (Press release). The Wikimedia Foundation. 15 December 2005. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 

{{Cite press release
  | title = HFPA Announces Timetable fo…
  | publisher = [[Hollywood Foreign P…]]
  | date = May 25, 2006
  | url = http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32
  | accessdate = June 13, 2006 }}

"HFPA Announces Timetable for 64th Annual Golden Globe Awards" (Press release). Hollywood Foreign Press Association. May 25, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2006. 

video
(movie, television production, documentary, etc.)
{{Cite video}}
people
title
{{Cite video
  | people = 
  | title = 
  | medium = 
  | publisher = 
  | location = 
  | date = }}
{{Cite video
  | people = Al-Issawi, Omar (Director)
  | title = [http://www.imdb…]
  | medium = Television production
  | publisher = Al-Issawi, Om…
  | location = Lebanon
  | date = 2001 }}

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (Television production). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar. 

{{Cite video
  | people = Dick Cavett
  | title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock…
  | medium = DVD
  | publisher = Shout Factory
  | date = 2005 }}

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory. 

video game {{Cite video game}}
title
developer
{{Cite video game  
  | title = 
  | developer = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | platform = 
  | version = 
  | level = 
  | language = 
  | isolang = 
  | quote = }}
{{Cite video game
  |title=[[Halo 3]]
  |developer= [[Bungie]]
  |publisher=[[Microsoft Game Studios]]
  |date=September 25, 2007
  |platform=[[Xbox 360]]
  |version=1.0
  |level=The Storm
  |language=English
  |isolang=
  |quote='''Arbiter''': More Brutes? /...

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Cite video game


Harvard reference and shortened footnote examples[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ: Template:Harvard citation documentation

These templates automatically create a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page. All the following templates are supported: {{citation}} · {{cite book}} · {{cite journal}} · {{cite web}} · {{cite conference}} · {{cite encyclopedia}} · {{cite mailing list}} · {{cite manual}} · {{cite news}} · {{cite press release}} · {{cite arXiv}} · {{cite video}} (an up-to-date list is at Template:Citation/core). To use the links, the template must define "Surname" (or "Last") and "Year" and must include ref=harv.

What to type What it makes
  • Article text.{{sfn|Turner|1851|pp=10-11}} (Shortened footnote template)
  • Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1879|p=289}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

  • Article text.[1]
  • Article text.[2]
Notes
  1. ^Turner 1851, pp. 10-11
  2. ^Smith 1879, p. 289
  • {{Harvard citation|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}}
  • {{Harv|Smith|1879|p=289}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|1851}} asserts that ... (author's name part of text)
  • {{Harvnb|Smith|1879}} (no brackets)
  • {{Harv|Lincoln|Washington|Adams|Johnson|2007|pp=88–89}} (multi-author)

Three Harvcol templates are altered to use colons to indicate page numbers.

Harvcol templates

See also[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Notes[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. In contrast to parenthetical referencing or shortened footnotes, citations using the footnote system don't require wikilinks of course, as the inline citations in this method simply appear as numbers within the text, linking to a list of full citations (and notes) at the end of the article (like this).
  2. Notes on {{Cite comic}}:
    • This template allows for a cartoonist field to be used instead of the individual fields if there is a sole creator, as in Bone, or an artist field if the penciller and inker is the same person.
    • The style of this template is based on Allen Ellis' Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide, 1999.
    • See the talk page for more details and field explanations.
  3. Notes on {{Comic strip reference}}

External links[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]