ସ୍ତନ୍ୟପାୟୀ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
Mammals
ଜୀବାଶ୍ମ କାଳ: 225–0 Ma (Kemp) or 167–0 Ma (Rowe) See discussion of dates in text
Examples of various mammalian orders. Click to see originals.

Row 1: common vampire bat, Virginia opossum, eastern grey kangaroo.
Row 2: southern marsupial mole, humans, northern elephant seals.
Row 3: fox squirrel, tree pangolin, African elephants.
Row 4: platypus, colugo, reindeer.
Row 5: humpback whale, star-nosed mole, giant panda.
Row 6: giant armadillo, plains zebras, black and rufous elephant shrew.

ବିଜ୍ଞାନଭିତ୍ତିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀବିଭାଗ e
ଜଗତ: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
clade: Amniota
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ: Synapsida
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ: Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subgroups

ସ୍ତନ୍ୟପାୟୀ (ଇଂରାଜୀ: Mammal; ଶ୍ରେଣୀ Mammalia /məˈmli.ə/) ସମୂହର ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନେ (ନାରୀ) ନିଜ ନବଜାତ ଶିଶୁକୁ ସ୍ତନ୍ୟ ପାନ କରାଇଥାନ୍ତି । ମହିଳା ମାନଙ୍କ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ସ୍ତନ ଗ୍ରନ୍ଥି ଦେଖାଯାଇଥାଏ, ଯାହାକି ସରୀସୃପ କିମ୍ବା ପକ୍ଷୀ ମାନଙ୍କ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଦେଖାଯାଇନଥାଏ । ସ୍ତନ୍ୟପାୟୀ ସମୂହର ଚାରି କୋଠରି ବିଶିଷ୍ଟ ହୃତପିଣ୍ଡ ରହିଥାଏ ଓ ମସ୍ତିସ୍କ ଗଠନ ଅପେକ୍ଷାକୃତ ଉନ୍ନତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।

ବିବିଧତା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ବିଭାଗ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଅଧିକ ପଢନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • Brown W.M. (2001). "Natural selection of mammalian brain components" (PDF). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (9): 471–473. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02246-7. http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~wmbrown/BROWN.TREE.pdf. 
  • Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, July 2006. pp. 1–46.
  • McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
  • Nowak, Ronald M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1936 pp. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  • Simpson, George Gaylord (1945). "The principles of classification and a classification of mammals". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 85: 1–350. 
  • William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348–2351, 14 December 2001.
  • Springer, Mark S., Michael J. Stanhope, Ole Madsen, and Wilfried W. de Jong. 2004. "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree". Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19:430–438. (PDF version)
  • Vaughan, Terry A., James M. Ryan, and Nicholas J. Capzaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy: Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, 565 pp. ISBN 0-03-025034-X (Brooks Cole, 1999)
  • Jan Ole Kriegs, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91."PLoS Biology – Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals". Biology.plosjournals.org. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040091. 
  • David MacDonald, Sasha Norris. 2006. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, 3rd edition. Printed in China, 930 pp. ISBN 0-681-45659-0

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:TaxonIds