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Matlab Logo.png
L-shaped membrane logo[୧]
MATLAB R2013a Win8 screenshot.png
MATLAB R2013a running on Windows 8
ପ୍ରଥମ ରିଲିଜ୍୧୯୮୪; ୩୬ ବର୍ଷ ଆଗରୁ (1984)
ଷ୍ଟେବଲ୍ ରିଲିଜ୍R2014a / ମାର୍ଚ୍ଚ ୬, ୨୦୧୪; ୨୨୧୮ ଦିନ ଆଗରୁ (2014-03-06)
ବିକାଶ ଅବସ୍ଥାActive
ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମିଙ୍ଗ୍ ଲାଙ୍ଗୁଏଜ୍C, C++, Java, MATLAB
Operating systemCross-platform: Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X[୨]
ପ୍ଲାଟଫର୍ମIA-32, x86-64
ପ୍ରକାରTechnical computing
ଲାଇସେନ୍ସProprietary commercial software
ୱେବସାଇଟMATLAB product page
ପାରାଡ଼ିଜିମ୍‌multi-paradigm: imperative, procedural, object-oriented, array
ପ୍ରଥମେ ଦେଖାଯାଇଥିଲାlate 1970s
ଡିଜାଇନ କରିଥିଲେCleve Moler
ସ୍ଥାୟୀ ରିଲିଜ8.3 (2014)
ଟାଇପିଂ ପଦ୍ଧତିdynamic, weak
ଅପେରେଟିଂ ସିଷ୍ଟମCross-platform
ଫାଇଲ ଏକ୍ସଟେନ୍‌ସନ୍.m

ମ୍ୟାଟ୍‌ଲାବ୍‌ (MATLAB matrix laboratory) କମ୍ୟୁଟରଦ୍ୱାରା ଗାଣିତିକ ସମାଧାନ କରୁଥିବା ଏକ ମଲ୍ଟି-ପାରାଡିଜିମ୍ ଏନ୍‌ଭାଇରନ୍‌ମେଣ୍ଟ ଓ ଏହା ଚତୁର୍ଥ ପିଢୀର ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମିଂ ଭାଷା ଅଟେ । ଏହାକୁ ମ୍ୟାଥ୍‌ୱାର୍କ୍ସ ଅନ୍ତରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରୀୟ ସଂସ୍ଥା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କରିଛନ୍ତି ।



ମ୍ୟାଟ୍‌ଲାବ୍‌ ଆପ୍ଲିକେସନଟି ମ୍ୟାଟ୍‌ଲାବ୍‌ ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମିଂ ଭାଷା ପାଇଁ ତିଆରି ହୋଇଛି, ଏବଂ କମାଣ୍ଡ ଉଇଣ୍ଡୋରେ ମ୍ୟାଟ୍‌ଲାବ୍‌ କୋଡ ଲେଖିବା କିମ୍ବା ଟେକ୍‌ଷ୍ଟ ଫାଇଲ୍‌ରେ ମ୍ୟାଟ୍‌ଲାବ୍‌ କୋଡ ଲେଖି execute କରିବା ଏହାର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ବ୍ୟବହାର ଅଟେ ।[୩]

ଭେରିଏବଲ୍ସ (Variables)[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆସାଇନମେଣ୍ଟ ଅପରେଟର (assignment operator) = ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଭେରିଏବଲ୍ସ ଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଚିହ୍ନାଯାଏ । MATLAB ଏକ weakly typed ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମିଂ ଭାଷା ଅଟେ କାରଣ types ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅନ୍ତର୍ନିହିତ (implicitly) ଭାବେ convert ହେଇଥାନ୍ତି ।[୪] ଏହା ଏକ dynamically typed ଭାଷା ଅଟେ କାରଣ ଭେରିଏବୁଲ ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସେଗୁଡିକର type ଡିକ୍ଲାର୍ (declare) ନକରି ବି assign କରାଯାଇପାରିବ; କିନ୍ତୁ ଯଦି ସେଗୁଡିକୁ symbolic object ଭାବେ treat କରାଯାଏ,[୫] ଏବଂ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକର typeକୁ ବଦଳେଇ ଦିଆଯାଏ ତେବେ ଏଥିରେ ବ୍ୟତିକ୍ରମ ଦେଖାଦେବ । Value ଗୁଡ଼ିକ କୌଣସି constant (ସ୍ଥିରାଙ୍କ) ଗୁଡ଼ିକରୁ ଆସିଥାଇ ପାରନ୍ତି, କୌଣସି ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ variable ଗୁଡ଼ିକର valueରୁ ଆସିଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି, ନତୁବା କୌଣସି ଏକ functionର outputରୁ ଆସିଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି । ଉଦାହରଣ:

>> x = 17
x =

>> x = 'hat'
x =

>> y = x + 0
y =
       104        97       116

>> x = [3*4, pi/2]
x =
   12.0000    1.5708

>> y = 3*sin(x)
y =
   -1.6097    3.0000


A simple array is defined using the colon syntax: init:increment:terminator. For instance:

>> array = 1:2:9
array =
 1 3 5 7 9

defines a variable named array (or assigns a new value to an existing variable with the name array) which is an array consisting of the values 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. That is, the array starts at 1 (the init value), increments with each step from the previous value by 2 (the increment value), and stops once it reaches (or to avoid exceeding) 9 (the terminator value).

>> array = 1:3:9
array =
 1 4 7

the increment value can actually be left out of this syntax (along with one of the colons), to use a default value of 1.

>> ari = 1:5
ari =
 1 2 3 4 5

assigns to the variable named ari an array with the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, since the default value of 1 is used as the incrementer.

Indexing is one-based,[୬] which is the usual convention for matrices in mathematics, although not for some programming languages such as C, C++, and Java.

Matrices can be defined by separating the elements of a row with blank space or comma and using a semicolon to terminate each row. The list of elements should be surrounded by square brackets: []. Parentheses: () are used to access elements and subarrays (they are also used to denote a function argument list).

>> A = [16 3 2 13; 5 10 11 8; 9 6 7 12; 4 15 14 1]
A =
 16  3  2 13
  5 10 11  8
  9  6  7 12
  4 15 14  1

>> A(2,3)
ans =

Sets of indices can be specified by expressions such as "2:4", which evaluates to [2, 3, 4]. For example, a submatrix taken from rows 2 through 4 and columns 3 through 4 can be written as:

>> A(2:4,3:4)
ans =
 11 8
 7 12
 14 1

A square identity matrix of size n can be generated using the function eye, and matrices of any size with zeros or ones can be generated with the functions zeros and ones, respectively.

>> eye(3)
ans =
 1 0 0
 0 1 0
 0 0 1

>> zeros(2,3)
ans =
 0 0 0
 0 0 0

>> ones(2,3)
ans =
 1 1 1
 1 1 1

Most MATLAB functions can accept matrices and will apply themselves to each element. For example, mod(2*J,n) will multiply every element in "J" by 2, and then reduce each element modulo "n". MATLAB does include standard "for" and "while" loops, but (as in other similar applications such as R), using the vectorized notation often produces code that is faster to execute. This code, excerpted from the function magic.m, creates a magic square M for odd values of n (MATLAB function meshgrid is used here to generate square matrices I and J containing 1:n).

[J,I] = meshgrid(1:n);
A = mod(I + J - (n + 3) / 2, n);
B = mod(I + 2 * J - 2, n);
M = n * A + B + 1;


MATLAB has structure data types.[୭] Since all variables in MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name is "structure array", where each element of the array has the same field names. In addition, MATLAB supports dynamic field names[୮] (field look-ups by name, field manipulations, etc.). Unfortunately, MATLAB JIT does not support MATLAB structures, therefore just a simple bundling of various variables into a structure will come at a cost.[ଆଧାର ଲୋଡ଼ା]

Function handles[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by introducing function handles,[୯] or function references, which are implemented either in .m files or anonymous[୧୦]/nested functions.[୧୧]


Although MATLAB has classes, the syntax and calling conventions are significantly different from other languages. MATLAB has value classes and reference classes, depending on whether the class has handle as a super-class (for reference classes) or not (for value classes).[୧୨]

Method call behavior is different between value and reference classes. For example, a call to a method


can alter any member of object only if object is an instance of a reference class.

Graphics and graphical user interface programming[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

MATLAB supports developing applications with graphical user interface features. MATLAB includes GUIDE[୧୩] (GUI development environment) for graphically designing GUIs.[୧୪] It also has tightly integrated graph-plotting features. For example the function plot can be used to produce a graph from two vectors x and y. The code:

x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
y = sin(x);

produces the following figure of the sine function:

Matlab plot sin.svg

A MATLAB program can produce three-dimensional graphics using the functions surf, plot3 or mesh.

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);
f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));
axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])
zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')
hidden off
[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);
f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));
axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])
zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')
This code produces a wireframe 3D plot of the two-dimensional unnormalized sinc function:     This code produces a surface 3D plot of the two-dimensional unnormalized sinc function:
MATLAB mesh sinc3D.svg     MATLAB surf sinc3D.svg

In MATLAB, graphical user interfaces can be programmed with the GUI design environment (GUIDE) tool.[୧୫]

Object-oriented programming[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

MATLAB's support for object-oriented programming includes classes, inheritance, virtual dispatch, packages, pass-by-value semantics, and pass-by-reference semantics.[୧୬]

classdef hello
        function greet(this)

When put into a file named hello.m, this can be executed with the following commands:

>> x = hello;
>> x.greet();

Interfacing with other languages[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

MATLAB can call functions and subroutines written in the C programming language or Fortran.[୧୭] A wrapper function is created allowing MATLAB data types to be passed and returned. The dynamically loadable object files created by compiling such functions are termed "MEX-files" (for MATLAB executable).[୧୮][୧୯]

Libraries written in Perl, Java, ActiveX or .NET can be directly called from MATLAB,[୨୦][୨୧] and many MATLAB libraries (for example XML or SQL support) are implemented as wrappers around Java or ActiveX libraries. Calling MATLAB from Java is more complicated, but can be done with a MATLAB toolbox[୨୨] which is sold separately by MathWorks, or using an undocumented mechanism called JMI (Java-to-MATLAB Interface),[୨୩][୨୪] (which should not be confused with the unrelated Java Metadata Interface that is also called JMI).

As alternatives to the MuPAD based Symbolic Math Toolbox available from MathWorks, MATLAB can be connected to Maple or Mathematica.[୨୫][୨୬]

Libraries also exist to import and export MathML.[୨୭]


MATLAB is a proprietary product of MathWorks, so users are subject to vendor lock-in.[୨୮][୨୯] Although MATLAB Builder product can deploy MATLAB functions as library files which can be used with .NET[୩୦] or Java[୩୧] application building environment, future development will still be tied to the MATLAB language.

Each toolbox is purchased separately. If an evaluation license is requested, the MathWorks sales department requires detailed information about the project for which MATLAB is to be evaluated. Overall the process of acquiring a license is expensive in terms of money and time.[ଆଧାର ଲୋଡ଼ା] If granted (which it often is), the evaluation license is valid for two to four weeks. A student version of MATLAB is also available.

It has been reported that EU competition regulators are investigating whether MathWorks refused to sell licenses to a competitor.[୩୨]


MATLAB has a number of competitors.[୩୩] Commercial competitors include Mathematica, Maple, and IDL. There are also free open source alternatives to MATLAB, in particular GNU Octave, Scilab, FreeMat, Julia, and Sage which are intended to be mostly compatible with the MATLAB language. Among other languages that treat arrays as basic entities (array programming languages) are APL, Fortran 90 and higher, S-Lang, as well as the statistical languages R and S. There are also libraries to add similar functionality to existing languages, such as IT++ for C++, Perl Data Language for Perl, ILNumerics for .NET, NumPy/SciPy for Python, and Numeric.js for JavaScript.

GNU Octave stands out as it treats incompatibility with MATLAB as a bug (see GNU Octave#Matlab), therefore it aims to provide a software clone.

Release history[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Version[୩୪] Release name Number Bundled JVM Year Release Date Notes
MATLAB 1.0 1984
MATLAB 2 1986
MATLAB 3 1987
MATLAB 3.5 1990 Ran on MS-DOS but required at least a 386 processor. Version 3.5m required math coprocessor
MATLAB 4 1992
MATLAB 4.2c 1994 Ran on Windows 3.1. Required a math coprocessor. Is running also on 32 bit Windows Vista
MATLAB 5.0 Volume 8 1996 December, 1996 Unified releases across all platforms.
MATLAB 5.1 Volume 9 1997 May, 1997
MATLAB 5.1.1 R9.1
MATLAB 5.2 R10 1998 March, 1998
MATLAB 5.2.1 R10.1
MATLAB 5.3 R11 1999 January, 1999
MATLAB 5.3.1 R11.1 November, 1999
MATLAB 6.0 R12 12 1.1.8 2000 November, 2000 First release with bundled Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
MATLAB 6.1 R12.1 1.3.0 2001 June, 2001
MATLAB 6.5 R13 13 1.3.1 2002 July, 2002
MATLAB 6.5.1 R13SP1 2003
MATLAB 6.5.2 R13SP2
MATLAB 7 R14 14 1.4.2 2004 June, 2004
MATLAB 7.0.1 R14SP1 October, 2004
MATLAB 7.0.4 R14SP2 1.5.0 2005 March 7, 2005 Support for memory-mapped files.[୩୫]
MATLAB 7.1 R14SP3 1.5.0 September 1, 2005
MATLAB 7.2 R2006a 15 1.5.0 2006 March 1, 2006
MATLAB 7.3 R2006b 16 1.5.0 September 1, 2006 HDF5-based MAT-file support
MATLAB 7.4 R2007a 17 1.5.0_07 2007 March 1, 2007 New bsxfun function to apply element-by-element binary operation with singleton expansion enabled.[୩୬]
MATLAB 7.5 R2007b 18 1.6.0 September 1, 2007 Last release for Windows 2000 and PowerPC Mac. License Server support for Windows Vista.[୩୭] New internal format for P-code.
MATLAB 7.6 R2008a 19 1.6.0 2008 March 1, 2008 Major enhancements to object-oriented programming capabilities with a new class definition syntax,[୩୮] and ability to manage namespaces with packages.[୩୯]
MATLAB 7.7 R2008b 20 1.6.0_04 October 9, 2008 New Map data structure.[୪୦] Upgrades to random number generators.[୪୧]
MATLAB 7.8 R2009a 21 1.6.0_04 2009 March 6, 2009 First release for 32-bit & 64-bit Microsoft Windows 7. New external interface to Microsoft .NET Framework.[୪୨]
MATLAB 7.9 R2009b 22 1.6.0_12 September 4, 2009 First release for Intel 64-bit Mac, and last for Solaris SPARC. New usage for the tilde operator (~) to ignore arguments in function calls.[୪୩][୪୪]
MATLAB 7.9.1 R2009bSP1 1.6.0_12 2010 April 1, 2010 bug fixes.
MATLAB 7.10 R2010a 23 1.6.0_12 March 5, 2010 Last release for Intel 32-bit Mac.
MATLAB 7.11 R2010b 24 1.6.0_17 September 3, 2010 Support for enumerations added.[୪୫]
MATLAB 7.11.1 R2010bSP1 1.6.0_17 2011 March 17, 2011 bug fixes and updates.
MATLAB 7.11.2 R2010bSP2 1.6.0_17 April 5, 2012[୪୬] bug fixes.
MATLAB 7.12 R2011a 25 1.6.0_17 April 8, 2011 New rng function to control random number generation.[୪୭][୪୮][୪୯]
MATLAB 7.13 R2011b 26 1.6.0_17 September 1, 2011 Access/change parts of variables directly in MAT-files, without loading into memory. [୫୦] Increased maximum local workers with Parallel Computing Toolbox from 8 to 12.[୫୧]
MATLAB 7.14 R2012a 27 1.6.0_17 2012 March 1, 2012
MATLAB 8 R2012b 28 1.6.0_17 September 11, 2012 First release with Toolstrip interface.[୫୨] MATLAB Apps.[୫୩] Redesigned documentation system.
MATLAB 8.1 R2013a 29 1.6.0_17 2013 March 7, 2013 New unit testing framework.[୫୪]
MATLAB 8.2 R2013b 30 1.7.0_11 September 6, 2013[୫୫] New table data type.[୫୬]
MATLAB 8.3 R2014a 31 1.7.0_11 2014 March 7, 2014[୫୭] Simplified compiler setup for building MEX-files. USB Webcams support in core MATLAB. Number of local workers no longer limited to 12 with Parallel Computing Toolbox.

The number (or Release number) is the version reported by Concurrent License Manager program FLEXlm.

For a complete list of changes of both MATLAB and official toolboxes, consult the MATLAB release notes.[୫୮]

File extensions[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]


MATLAB figure
MATLAB code (function, script, or class)
MATLAB data (binary file for storing variables)
.mex... (.mexw32, .mexw64, .mexglx, ...) 
MATLAB executable MEX-files[୫୯] (platform specific, e.g. ".mexmac" for the Mac, ".mexglx" for Linux, etc.[୬୦])
MATLAB content-obscured .m file (P-code[୬୧])
MATLAB packaged App Installer[୬୨]


Simulink Model
Simulink Protected Model
Simulink Model (SLX format)
Simulink Protected Model (SLX format)


Simscape Model


MuPAD Notebook
MuPAD Code
.xvc, .xvz 
MuPAD Graphics


GPU Cache file generated by Jacket for MATLAB (AccelerEyes)
MATLAB CAPE-OPEN Unit Operation Model File (AmsterCHEM)

Easter eggs[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Several easter eggs exist in MATLAB.[୬୪] These include hidden pictures,[୬୫] and random inside jokes. For example, typing in "spy" will generate a picture of the spies from Spy vs Spy. "Spy" was changed to an image of a dog in recent releases (R2011B). Typing in "why" randomly outputs a philosophical answer. Other commands include "penny", "toilet", "image", and "life". Not every Easter egg appears in every version of MATLAB – some appear and some disappear.

Screen capture of two easter eggs in MATLAB 3.5.

See also[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]


  1. "The L-Shaped Membrane". MathWorks. 2003. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  2. "System Requirements and Platform Availability". MathWorks. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  3. "MATLAB Documentation". MathWorks. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  4. "Comparing MATLAB with Other OO Languages". MATLAB. MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  5. "Create Symbolic Variables and Expressions". Symbolic Math Toolbox. MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  6. "Matrix Indexing". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  7. "Structures". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  8. "Generate Field Names from Variables". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  9. "Function Handles". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  10. "Anonymous Functions". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  11. "Nested Functions". MathWorks.
  12. "Comparing Handle and Value Classes". MathWorks.
  13. "Introduction to GUIDE". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  14. "MATLAB GUI". MathWorks. 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  15. Smith, S. T. (2006). Matlab: Advanced GUI Development. Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59858-181-2.
  16. "Object-Oriented Programming". MathWorks. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  17. "Application Programming Interfaces to MATLAB". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  18. "Create MEX-Files". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  19. Spielman, Dan (2004-02-10). "Connecting C and Matlab". Yale University, Computer Science Department. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
  20. "External Programming Language Interfaces". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  21. "Call Perl script using appropriate operating system executable". MathWorks. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  22. "MATLAB Builder JA". MathWorks. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  23. Yair Altman (2010-04-14). "Java-to-Matlab Interface". Undocumented Matlab. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  24. Joshua Kaplan. "matlabcontrol JMI".
  25. Roger Germundsson from Wolfram Research (1998-09-30). "MaMa: Calling MATLAB from Mathematica with MathLink". Wolfram Library Archive.
  26. rsmenon, szhorvat (2013). "MATLink: Communicate with MATLAB from Mathematica". Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  27. Michael Weitzel (2006-09-01). "MathML import/export". MathWorks - File Exchange. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  28. ଆଧାର ଭୁଲ: ଅଚଳ <ref> ଚିହ୍ନ; eetimes2004 ନାମରେ ଥିବା ଆଧାର ଭିତରେ କିଛି ଲେଖା ନାହିଁ ।
  29. Jan Stafford (21 May 2003). "The Wrong Choice: Locked in by license restrictions". SearchOpenSource.com. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  30. "MATLAB Builder NE". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  31. "MATLAB Builder JA". MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  32. "MathWorks Software Licenses Probed by EU Antitrust Regulators". Bloomberg news. 2012-03-01.
  33. Stefan Steinhaus (February 24, 2008). "Comparison of mathematical programs for data analysis".
  34. Cleve Moler (January 2006). "The Growth of MATLAB and The MathWorks over Two Decades". News & Notes Newsletter. MathWorks. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  35. "Memory Mapping". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  36. "MATLAB bsxfun". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  37. "Do MATLAB versions prior to R2007a run under Windows Vista?". MathWorks. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  38. "OOP Compatibility with Previous Versions". MathWorks. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  39. "Packages Create Namespaces". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  40. "Map Containers". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  41. "Creating and Controlling a Random Number Stream". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  42. "New MATLAB External Interfacing Features in R2009a". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  43. "Ignore Function Outputs". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  44. "Ignore Function Inputs". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  45. "Working with Enumerations". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  46. "What's New in Release 2010b". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  47. "New RNG Function for Controlling Random Number Generation in Release 2011a". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  48. "MATLAB rng". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  49. "Replace Discouraged Syntaxes of rand and randn". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  50. "MATLAB matfile". MathWorks. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
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  • Gilat, Amos (2004). MATLAB: An Introduction with Applications 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-69420-5.
  • Quarteroni, Alfio (2006). Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-32612-0. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Ferreira, A.J.M. (2009). MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-9199-5.
  • Lynch, Stephen (2004). Dynamical Systems with Applications using MATLAB. Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-0-8176-4321-8.

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