ରୁଥେନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Ruthenium,  44Ru
Ruthenium crystals.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ ruthenium, Ru
Appearance silvery white metallic
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /rˈθniəm/
roo-thee-nee-əm
Ruthenium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 44
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 8, d-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 5
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar) 101.07
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Kr] 4d7 5s1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Density near r.t. 12.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.65 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ/mol
Heat of 591.6 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[୧] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.2
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for ruthenium
Speed of sound thin rod 5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 71 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[୨]
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS Number 7440-18-8
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognized as a distinct element by Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Most stable isotopes of ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y β+β+ 2.7188 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
| references

ରୁଥେନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Ruପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୪୪ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉପସ୍ଥିତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗଠନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]