ଥୋରିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Thorium,  90Th
Thorium sample 0.1g.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ thorium, Th
Appearance silvery, often with black tarnish
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈθɔəriəm/
thohr-ee-əm
Thorium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Ce

Th

(Uqb)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 90
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group n/a, f-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 7
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   actinide
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar) 232.03806
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Rn] 6d2 7s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 2115 K ​(1842 °C, ​3348 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density near r.t. 11.7 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ/mol
Heat of 514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.230 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

4, 3, 2, 1

(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radius empirical: 179 pm
Covalent radius 206±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for thorium
Speed of sound thin rod 2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 147 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 31 GPa
Bulk modulus 54 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.27
Mohs hardness 3.0
Vickers hardness 350 MPa
Brinell hardness 400 MPa
CAS Number 7440-29-1
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Most stable isotopes of thorium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 5.520 224Ra
229Th trace 7340 y α 5.168 225Ra
230Th trace 75380 y α 4.770 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 0.39 231Pa
232Th 100% 1.405×1010 y α 4.083 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 0.27 234Pa
| references
Thallium କିମ୍ବା Thulium ସହ ଦ୍ଵନ୍ଦରେ ପଡ଼ିବେ ନାହିଁ ।

ଥୋରିଅମ, ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ଭାବେ ମିଳୁଥିବା ଏକ ତେଜସ୍କ୍ରିୟ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Thପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୯୦ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଭୌତିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ରସାୟନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉପସ୍ଥିତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗଠନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.

ସହାୟକ ଗ୍ରନ୍ଥ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]