ଜର୍ମାନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
ସିଧାସଳଖ ଯିବେ ଦିଗବାରେଣିକୁ, ଖୋଜିବେ
Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2x3 cm) polycrystalline block of Ge with uneven cleaved surfaces
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ germanium, Ge
Appearance grayish-white
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ərˈmniəm/
jər-may-nee-əm
Germanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 32
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 14 (carbon group), p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   metalloid
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar) 72.63(1) 
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.323 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.60 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ/mol
Heat of 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radius empirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed of sound thin rod 5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus 103[୨] GPa
Shear modulus 41[୨] GPa
Bulk modulus 75[୨] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[୨]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS Number 7440-56-4
ଇତିହାସ
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Clemens Winkler (1886)
Most stable isotopes of germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
| references

ଜର୍ମାନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Geପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୩୨ ଅଟେ ।

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