ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Infobox carbon

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
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Carbon,  6C
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of Carbon
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ carbon, C
Appearance clear (diamond) & black (graphite)
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈkɑrbən/
Carbon in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z) 6
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ group 14 (carbon group), p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ period 2
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର   nonmetal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar) 12.011(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [He] 2s2 2p2
per shell
2, 4
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥା solid
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t. amorphous:[୧] 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
Triple point 4600 K, ​10800[୨][୩] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[୪], 2, 1[୫], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[୬]
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond crystal structure for carbon

(diamond, clear)
Speed of sound thin rod 18350 (diamond) m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 0.8 (diamond)[୭] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W/(m·K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[୮]
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[୭] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[୭] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond)[୭] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[୭]
Mohs hardness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS Number 7440-44-0
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Egyptians and Sumerians[୯] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[୧୦] (1789)
Most stable isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP


11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
| references


  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (୨୦୦୫). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (୮୬th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN ୦-୮୪୯୩-୦୪୮୬-୫. 
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. ୭.୦ ୭.୧ ୭.୨ ୭.୩ ୭.୪ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  9. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  10. Senese, Fred. "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Retrieved 2007-11-24.