ଛାଞ୍ଚ:ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
The Sun Sun symbol.svg
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
୧.496×10
 କି.ମି.

8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V) −26.74[୧]
Absolute magnitude 4.83[୧]
Spectral classification G2V
Metallicity Z = 0.0122[୨]
Angular size 31.6′ – 32.7′[୩]
Adjectives Solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
~୨.5×10୧୭
 କି.ମି.

୨୬,୦୦୦ light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50) × 10 a
Velocity ~୨୨୦ km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy)
~୨୦ km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
~୩୭୦ km/s[୪] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter ୧.392684×10
 କି.ମି.
[୫]
Equatorial radius ୬.96342×10
 କି.ମି.
[୫]
109 × Earth[୬]
Equatorial circumference ୪.379×10
 କି.ମି.
[୬]
109 × Earth[୬]
Flattening ×10−୬
Surface area ୬.0877×10୧୨
 km2
[୬]
୧୧,୯୯୦ × Earth[୬]
Volume ୧.412×10୧୮
 km3
[୬]
୧୩,୦୦,୦୦୦ × Earth
Mass ୧.9891×10୩୦
 kg
[୧]
୩,୩୩,୦୦୦ × Earth[୧]
Average density ୧.408×10
 kg/m3
[୧][୬][୭]
Density Center (model): ୧.622×10
 kg/m3
[୧]
Lower photosphere: ×10−୪
 kg/m3

Lower chromosphere: ×10−୬
 kg/m3

Corona (ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Dabbr): ×10−୧୨
 kg/m3
[୮]
Equatorial surface gravity ୨୭୪.0 m/s2[୧]
୨୭.94 g
୨୭,୫୪୨.29 cgs
28 × Earth[୬]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
୬୧୭.7 km/s[୬]
55 × Earth[୬]
Temperature Center (modeled): ~୧.57×10
 K
[୧]
Photosphere (effective): ୫,୭୭୮ K[୧]
Corona: ~×10
 K
Luminosity (Lsol) ୩.846×10୨୬
 W
[୧]
~୩.75×10୨୮
 lm

~୯୮ lm/W efficacy
Mean intensity (Isol) ୨.009×10
 W·m−2·sr−1
Age 4.57 billion years[୯]
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25°[୧]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[୧୦]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 days[୧]
(at 16° latitude) 25.38 days[୧]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[୧୦]
(at poles) 34.4 days[୧]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
୭.189×10
 km/h
[୬]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[୧୧]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%
Sulfur 0.04%

References

  1. ୧.୦୦ ୧.୦୧ ୧.୦୨ ୧.୦୩ ୧.୦୪ ୧.୦୫ ୧.୦୬ ୧.୦୭ ୧.୦୮ ୧.୦୯ ୧.୧୦ ୧.୧୧ ୧.୧୨ ୧.୧୩ Williams, D. R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  2. Asplund, M.; N. Grevesse and A. J. Sauval (2006). "The new solar abundances - Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology 147: 76–79. doi:10.1553/cia147s76. 
  3. "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  4. Hinshaw, G.; et al. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 180 (2): 225–245. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225. 
  5. ୫.୦ ୫.୧ Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (March 5, 2012), Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits, http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4898 
  6. ୬.୦୦ ୬.୦୧ ୬.୦୨ ୬.୦୩ ୬.୦୪ ୬.୦୫ ୬.୦୬ ୬.୦୭ ୬.୦୮ ୬.୦୯ ୬.୧୦ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric. 
  7. Ko, M. (1999). "Density of the Sun". In Elert, G.. The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml. 
  8. "Principles of Spectroscopy". University of Michigan, Astronomy Department. 30 August 2007. http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/undergrad/Labs/spectro/short_spectro.html. 
  9. Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2008). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics 390 (3): 1115–1118. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749. 
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ Seidelmann, P. K.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-22. 
  11. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html. Retrieved 2008-07-29. , citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. ପୃଷ୍ଠା. 37. NASA SP-402. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-402/contents.htm.