ଓସେନିଆ

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ଓସେନିଆ
An orthographic projection of geopolitical Oceania.
Geopolitical Oceania
କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ ୮,୫୨୫,୯୮୯ କି.ମି. (୩,୨୯୧,୯୦୩ sq mi)
ଲୋକସଁଖ୍ୟା 36,659,000 (2010, 6th)
ଲୋକସଁଖ୍ୟାର ଘନତା ୪.୧୯/କି.ମି. (୧୦.୯/sq mi)
ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରିଅତା Oceanian
Oceanic
ଦେଶ
ଅଧିନରେ ଥିବା ଜାଗା
ଭାଷା
ସମୟ ଜୋନ UTC+8 (Australian Western Standard Time) to UTC-6 (Easter Island) (West to East)
ନଗର List of cities in Oceania
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Sydney
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Melbourne
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Brisbane
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Perth
New Zealand Auckland
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Adelaide
New Zealand Wellington
United States Honolulu
ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରେଲିଆ Canberra
New Zealand Christchurch
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby

Oceania (UK /ˌʃɪˈɑːniə,_ˌsɪʔ/[୧] or US /ˌʃˈæniə/),[୨] also known as Oceanica,[୩] is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.[୪] Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from its three subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia[୫] to, more broadly, the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago.[୬]

The term is often used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands[୭][୮][୯][୧୦] or biogeographically as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either from New Zealand[୧୧] or from mainland New Guinea).[୧୨]

ନାମକରଣ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସଂଜ୍ଞା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଇତିହାସ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଭୂଗୋଳ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Oceania

An orthographic projection of geographic Oceania.
Wider Geographic Oceania.
Little of the South Pacific is apparent at this scale, though Hawaii is just visible near the eastern horizon.

Area ୧୦,୯୭୫,୬୦୦ କି.ମି. (୪,୨୩୭,୭୦୦ sq mi)
Population 37.8 million (2010)
Time Zones UTC+7 (Western Indonesian Time) to UTC-6 (Easter Island)
Largest Cities Jakarta
Manila
Sydney
Bandung
Melbourne
Surabaya
Medan

Narrower Geographic Oceania.
Narrower Geographic Oceania.
Island Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia (apart from New Zealand)

Area ୧୮୩,୦୦୦ କି.ମି. (୭୧,୦୦୦ sq mi)
Population 5.2 million (2008)
Time Zones UTC+9 (Palau) to UTC-6 (Easter Island)
Largest Cities Honolulu
Nouméa
Suva
Papeete
Honiara

The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania.[୧୩] The countries and territories in this table are categorized according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated. These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, of course, depending on the source and purpose of each description.

Name of region, followed by countries
and their flags[୧୪]
Area
(km²)
Population Population density
(per km²)
Capital ISO 3166-1
Australasia[୧୫]
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Australia) 199
 Australia 7,686,850 23,034,879 2.7 Canberra AU
 Christmas Island[୧୬] (Australia) 135 1,493 3.5 Flying Fish Cove CX
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands[୧୬] (Australia) 14 628 45.1 West Island CC
 Coral Sea Islands (Australia) 10 4
 New Zealand[୧୭] 268,680 4,465,900 16.5 Wellington NZ
 Norfolk Island (Australia) 35 2,302 61.9 Kingston NF
Melanesia[୧୮]
 Fiji 18,270 856,346 46.9 Suva FJ
 New Caledonia (France) 19,060 240,390 12.6 Nouméa NC
 Papua (Indonesia) 319,036 3,486,432 11 Jayapura PA
 West Papua (Indonesia) 140,375 760,855 5.4 Manokwari PB
 Papua New Guinea[୧୯] 462,840 5,172,033 11.2 Port Moresby PG
 Solomon Islands 28,450 494,786 17.4 Honiara SB
 Vanuatu 12,200 240,000 19.7 Port Vila VU
Micronesia
 Federated States of Micronesia 702 135,869 193.5 Palikir FM
 Guam (United States) 549 160,796 292.9 Hagåtña GU
 Kiribati 811 96,335 118.8 South Tarawa KI
 Marshall Islands 181 73,630 406.8 Majuro MH
 Nauru 21 12,329 587.1 Yaren (de facto) NR
 Northern Mariana Islands (United States) 477 77,311 162.1 Saipan MP
 Palau 458 19,409 42.4 Melekeok[୨୦] PW
Wake Island Wake Island (United States) 2 12 Wake Island UM
Polynesia
 American Samoa (United States) 199 68,688 345.2 Pago Pago, Fagatogo[୨୧] AS
 Cook Islands (New Zealand) 240 20,811 86.7 Avarua CK
 Easter Island (Chile) 164 5,761 31 Hanga Roa CL
 French Polynesia (France) 4,167 257,847 61.9 Papeete PF
 Hawaii (United States) 16,636 1,360,301 81.8 Honolulu US
 Niue (New Zealand) 260 2,134 8.2 Alofi NU
 Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom) 5 47 10 Adamstown PN
 Samoa 2,944 179,000 63.2 Apia WS
 Tokelau (New Zealand) 10 1,431 143.1 Nukunonu TK
 Tonga 748 106,137 141.9 Nukuʻalofa TO
 Tuvalu 26 11,146 428.7 Funafuti TV
 Wallis and Futuna (France) 274 15,585 56.9 Mata-Utu WF
Total 8,845,025 39,155,699 4.4
Total minus mainland Australia 1,158,175 17,127,699 14.8
Map of Nations and territories of Oceania including Australia and New Zealand
Geographic map of islands of Oceania

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

କ୍ରୀଡା[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/".
  2. "Oceania". Dictionary.com. Random House, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  3. ""Oceanica" definition". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  4. For a history of the term, see Douglas & Ballard (2008) Foreign bodies: Oceania and the science of race 1750–1940
  5. "Oceania". 2005. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press.
  6. ଆଧାର ଭୁଲ: ଅଚଳ <ref> ଚିହ୍ନ; OED ନାମରେ ଥିବା ଆଧାର ଭିତରେ କିଛି ଲେଖା ନାହିଁ ।
  7. Son, George Philip (୨୦୦୩). Philip's E.A.E.P Atlas. p. ୭୯. ISBN ୯୭୮୯୯୬୬୨୫୧୨୫୧. Retrieved ୨୦୧୪-୦୩-୦୮. 
  8. Scholastic Atlas of the World. ୨୦୦୩.  "Oceania is the smallest of all the continents"
  9. Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, United Nations Statistics Division. Revised August 28, 2007. Accessed on line October 11, 2007.
  10. Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (୧୯୯୭). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. ୩୨. ISBN ୦-୫୨୦-୨୦୭୪୨-୪. ISBN ୦-୫୨୦-୨୦୭୪୩-୨. Interestingly enough, the answer [from a scholar who sought to calculate the number of continents] conformed almost precisely to the conventional list: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania (Australia plus New Zealand), Africa, and Antarctica. 
  11. Udvardy. 1975. A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world
  12. Steadman. 2006. Extinction & biogeography of tropical Pacific birds
  13. ଆଧାର ଭୁଲ: ଅଚଳ <ref> ଚିହ୍ନ; unsd-m49 ନାମରେ ଥିବା ଆଧାର ଭିତରେ କିଛି ଲେଖା ନାହିଁ ।
  14. Regions and constituents as per UN categorisations/map except notes 2–3, 6. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below (notes 3, 5–7, 9) may be in one or both of Oceania and Asia or North America.
  15. The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is "Australia and New Zealand."
  16. ୧୬.୦ ୧୬.୧ Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia.
  17. New Zealand is often considered part of Polynesia rather than Australasia.
  18. Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region.
  19. Papua New Guinea is often considered part of Australasia and Melanesia. It is sometimes included in the Malay Archipelago of Southeast Asia.
  20. On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror to Melekeok, located ୨୦ କି.ମି. (୧୨ mi) northeast of Koror on Babelthuap Island.
  21. Fagatogo is the seat of government of American Samoa.

ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]