ରୁଥେନିଅମ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ


Ruthenium
44Ru
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
ଭୌତିକ ରୁପ
silvery white metallic
ସାଧାରଣ ଧର୍ମ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ,
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ
ruthenium, Ru,
44
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /rˈθniəm/
roo-thee-nee-əm
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର transition metal
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ, ବ୍ଲକ୍ 8, 5, d
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ 101.07
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ [Kr] 4d7 5s1
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electron shells of ruthenium (2, 8, 18, 15, 1)
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାର Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognized as a distinct element by Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
ଭୌତିକ ଧର୍ମ
(ରୁମ୍ ଟେମ୍ପରେଚର୍‌ରେ ଘନତା) 12.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.65 g·cm−3
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ 2607 K, 2334 °C, 4233 °F
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ 4423 K, 4150 °C, 7502 °F
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 591.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[୧] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 710.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1620 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2747 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[୨]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 71 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 117 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5970 m·s−1
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-18-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y β+β+ 2.7188 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
· r

ରୁଥେନିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Ruପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୪୪ ଅଟେ ।

ଧର୍ମ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉପସ୍ଥିତି[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଗଠନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଉତ୍ପାଦନ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକ[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ବ୍ୟବହାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଆଧାର[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

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