ଛାଞ୍ଚ:ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
The Sun Sun symbol.svg
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
୧.୪୯୬×୧୦କି.ମି.
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V) −26.74[୧]
Absolute magnitude 4.83[୧]
Spectral classification G2V
Metallicity Z = 0.0122[୨]
Angular size 31.6′ – 32.7′[୩]
Adjectives Solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
~୨.୫×୧୦୧୭କି.ମି.
୨୬,୦୦୦light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50) × 10 a
Velocity ~୨୨୦km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy)
~୨୦km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
~୩୭୦km/s[୪] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter ୧.୩୯୨୮୪×୧୦କି.ମି.[୫]
Equatorial radius ୬.୯୬୩×୧୦କି.ମି.[୫]
109 × Earth[୬]
Equatorial circumference ୪.୩୭୯×୧୦କି.ମି.[୬]
109 × Earth[୬]
Flattening ×୧୦−୬
Surface area ୬.୦୮୭୭×୧୦୧୨km2
[୬]
୧୧,୯୯୦ × Earth[୬]
Volume ୧.୪୧୨×୧୦୧୮km3[୬]
୧୩,୦୦,୦୦୦ × Earth
Mass ୧.୯୮୯୧×୧୦୩୦kg[୧]
୩,୩୩,୦୦୦ × Earth[୧]
Average density ୧.୪୦୮×୧୦kg/m3[୧][୬][୭]
Density Center (model): ୧.୬୨୨×୧୦kg/m3[୧]
Lower photosphere: ×୧୦−୪kg/m3
Lower chromosphere: ×୧୦−୬kg/m3
Corona (ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Dabbr): ×୧୦−୧୨kg/m3[୮]
Equatorial surface gravity ୨୭୪.୦m/s2[୧]
୨୭.୯୪g
୨୭,୫୪୨.୨୯cgs
28 × Earth[୬]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
୬୧୭.୭km/s[୬]
55 × Earth[୬]
Temperature Center (modeled): ~୧.୫୭×୧୦K[୧]
Photosphere (effective): ୫,୭୭୮K[୧]
Corona: ~×୧୦K
Luminosity (Lsol) ୩.୮୪୬×୧୦୨୬W[୧]
~୩.୭୫×୧୦୨୮lm
~୯୮lm/W efficacy
Mean intensity (Isol) ୨.୦୦୯×୧୦W·m−2·sr−1
Age 4.57 billion years[୯]
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25°[୧]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[୧୦]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 days[୧]
(at 16° latitude) 25.38 days[୧]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[୧୦]
(at poles) 34.4 days[୧]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
୭.୧୮୯×୧୦km/h[୬]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[୧୧]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%
Sulfur 0.04%

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
  1. ୧.୦୦ ୧.୦୧ ୧.୦୨ ୧.୦୩ ୧.୦୪ ୧.୦୫ ୧.୦୬ ୧.୦୭ ୧.୦୮ ୧.୦୯ ୧.୧୦ ୧.୧୧ ୧.୧୨ ୧.୧୩ Williams, D. R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  2. Asplund, M.; N. Grevesse and A. J. Sauval (2006). "The new solar abundances - Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology 147: 76–79. Bibcode:2006CoAst.147...76A. doi:10.1553/cia147s76. 
  3. "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  4. Hinshaw, G.; et al. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 180 (2): 225–245. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225. 
  5. ୫.୦ ୫.୧ Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (March 5, 2012), Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits, http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4898 
  6. ୬.୦୦ ୬.୦୧ ୬.୦୨ ୬.୦୩ ୬.୦୪ ୬.୦୫ ୬.୦୬ ୬.୦୭ ୬.୦୮ ୬.୦୯ ୬.୧୦ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric. 
  7. Ko, M. (1999). "Density of the Sun". In Elert, G.. The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml. 
  8. "Principles of Spectroscopy". University of Michigan, Astronomy Department. 30 August 2007. http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/undergrad/Labs/spectro/short_spectro.html. 
  9. Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2008). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics 390 (3): 1115–1118. arXiv:astro-ph/0204331. Bibcode:2002A&A...390.1115B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749. 
  10. ୧୦.୦ ୧୦.୧ Seidelmann, P. K.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-22. 
  11. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html. Retrieved 2008-07-29. , citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.