ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ:ଆପେଆପେ ଥୟ କରା ସଭ୍ୟ

ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ ରୁ
Shortcuts:

A contributor's access to perform certain actions in Wikipedia is determined by various flags on their account, some of which are automatic and others of which must be given to them manually. A user with a flag is said to be a member of that flag's 'user group', giving them certain 'permissions' and the use of certain features of the MediaWiki software.

Users are assigned the highest possible permissions based on the groups they are members of. A user who is an administrator, bureaucrat and rollbacker, for instance, would be able to use Special:UnwatchedPages (granted with the 'sysop' group), Special:RenameUser (granted with the 'bureaucrat' group) and to also use rollback (granted with the 'sysop' and 'rollbacker' groups). If the user was removed from the 'sysop' group, they would still be able to use rollback, because they are still a member of the 'rollbacker' group.

Membership in a user group is sometimes referred to as a 'flag' or 'bit'; being made a member of the 'sysop' group is synonymous with being 'given the admin bit' or 'receiving the admin flag'.

Overview[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

All visitors to the site, including unregistered users, are part of the '*' group, while all logged-in users are also part of the 'user' group. Users are automatically promoted into the Autoconfirmed/Established users group when their account is four days old and has ten edits. Other flags are only given upon request; some, such as 'rollbacker' or 'bot', are granted unilaterally if the user demonstrates a need for them (see Wikipedia:Requests for permissions‎ and Wikipedia:Bots/Requests for approval). Others, such as 'sysop' and 'bureaucrat', are given only after community discussion and consensus at Wikipedia:Requests for adminship. Users are only made members of groups such as 'oversight' and 'checkuser' with the approval of the Arbitration Committee and after confirming their identity with the Wikimedia Foundation.

User groups[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Unregistered users[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Shortcut:

Contributors who have not created an account or logged in are identified by their IP address rather than a user name, and may read all Wikipedia pages (except restricted special pages), and edit pages that are not protected or semi-protected. They may create talk pages in any talk namespace but may need to ask for help to create pages in some parts of the wiki. They cannot upload files or images. They must answer a CAPTCHA if they wish to make an edit which involves the addition of one or more external links, and click a confirm link to purge pages. All users may also query the site API in 500-record batches.

New users[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

A user who edits through an account they have registered, may immediately create pages in any namespace (except the MediaWiki namespace, and limited to 8 per minute) and may also e-mail other users if they activate an email address in their user preferences. All logged-in users may mark edits as minor. They may purge pages without a confirmation step, but are still required to answer a CAPTCHA when adding external links. They may also customize their Wikimedia interface and its options as they wish, via Special:Preferences or by adding personal CSS or JavaScript rules to their vector.css or vector.js files.

Autoconfirmed users[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Shortcut:

A number of actions on the English Wikipedia are restricted to user accounts that pass certain thresholds of age (time passed since the first edit) and edit count: users who meet these requirements are considered part of the pseudo-group 'autoconfirmed'. Autoconfirmed status is checked every time a user performs a restricted action: it is then granted automatically by the software. The precise requirements for autoconfirmed status vary according to circumstances: for most users on en.wiki, accounts that are both more than four days old and have made at least 10 edits are considered autoconfirmed. However, users with IPBE editing through the Tor network are subjected to stricter autoconfirmed thresholds: 90 days and 100 edits.

Autoconfirmed status is required to move pages, edit semi-protected pages, and upload files or upload a new version of an existing file. Autoconfirmed users are no longer required to enter a CAPTCHA for most events. Autoconfirmed users may mark pages created by others as patrolled in Special:NewPages and save books to the wiki. In addition, the Edit filter has a number of warning settings that only affect editors who are not autoconfirmed.

Administrators, bureaucrats and stewards[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Administrators[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Administrator rights are granted by the community. The process involves considerable discussion and examination of their activities as an editor. Users who are members of the 'sysop' user group have access to a number of tools to allow them to carry out certain functions on the wiki. The tools cover processes such as page deletion, page protection, blocking and unblocking, access to modify fully protected pages and the Mediawiki interface. Administrators also have the ability to grant and remove account creator, rollback, ipblock-exempt rights, confirmed user, auto-reviewer, and edit filter manager rights to other users, and to their own alternate accounts. Administrators are otherwise no different from any other editor.

Administrators are also known historically as "sysops" (system operators). The two terms are used interchangeably.

See Special:ListUsers/sysop for a list of users in this group.

Bureaucrats[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Bureaucrat rights are granted by the community to exceptionally trusted users who are allowed to perform certain actions on other users' accounts.

Bureaucrats have extended access to Special:UserRights, enabling them to add users to the 'bureaucrat' group (but not remove them),[୧] and both add users to and remove users from the 'sysop'[୨] and 'bot' user groups. Bureaucrats can use Special:RenameUser to rename users (including themselves).

See Special:ListUsers/bureaucrat for a list of users in this group.

Stewards[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Stewardship is an elected role, and stewards are appointed globally across all Wikimedia Foundation wikis.

Users who are members of the 'steward' user group may grant and revoke any permission to or from any user on any wiki operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. This group is set on MetaWiki, and may use meta:Special:Userrights to set permissions on any Wikimedia wiki; they may add or remove any user from any group. Stewards generally act only when there is no user on a particular wiki that can make the necessary change. This includes granting of the 'administrator' or 'bureaucrat' access levels on wikis which do not have any local bureaucrats, and removing such flags if the user resigns or the account is acting maliciously. Stewards are also responsible for granting and revoking access levels such as 'oversight' and 'checkuser', as no other group is capable of making such changes.

Stewards can also act as checkusers, oversighters or bureaucrats on wikis which do not have local members of those groups. If a wiki has a passing need for an edit to be oversighted, for instance, a steward can add themselves to the 'oversight' user group on that wiki, perform the necessary oversight activity using Special:HideRevision, and then remove themselves from the 'oversight' group using their steward rights.

All steward actions are logged at meta:Special:Log/rights. See Special:Globalusers/steward for a list of users in this group.

Other flags giving access to specialized functions[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Reviewer[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

This usergroup was used in the pending changes trial. Members of this group can review other user's edits to articles placed under pending changes. This right is automatically assigned to administrators.

See Special:ListUsers/reviewer for a list of users in this group.

Rollback[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Users who are given the rollback flag ('rollbacker' user group) may revert revisions using the rollback feature. This right is automatically assigned to administrators.

See Special:ListUsers/rollbacker for a list of users in this group.

Autopatrolled[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Members of this group have 'autopatrol', which allows them to have their pages automatically patrolled on the New Pages list. This right is automatically assigned to administrators. Prior to June 2010, this right was known as "autoreviewer".

See Special:ListUsers/autoreviewer for a list of users in this group.

Confirmed users[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Shortcut:

In some situations, it is necessary for accounts to be exempted from the customary confirmation period. The 'confirmed' group contains the same rights as the 'autoconfirmed' group, but can be granted by administrators as necessary. See Special:ListUsers/confirmed for a list of users in this group. To request this permission see Wikipedia:Requests for permissions/Confirmed.

File mover[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The file mover user right is intended to allow users experienced in working with files to rename them, subject to policy, with the ease that autoconfirmed users already enjoy when renaming Wikipedia articles. This right is automatically assigned to administrators.

See Special:ListUsers/filemover for a list of users in this group.

Accountcreator[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Users who are given the accountcreator flag ('accountcreator' user group) are not affected by the 6 account creation limit per day per IP, and can create accounts for other users without restriction. Users in this group can also override the anti-spoof checks on account creation. This right is automatically assigned to administrators.

See Special:ListUsers/accountcreator for a list of users in this group.

Ipblock-exempt[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Users who are given the ipblock-exempt flag ('ipblock-exempt' user group) are not affected by autoblocks and blocks of IP addresses and ranges that aren't made with the "anonymous users only" setting. This right is automatically assigned to administrators and bots, however the flag must be added separately to enable editing from IP addresses affected by Tor blocks.

See Special:ListUsers/ipblock-exempt for a list of users in this group.

Edit Filter managers[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Members of this group can create, modify and delete edit filters. This flag is given and removed by administrators. It is not assigned to administrators by default.

See Special:ListUsers/abusefilter for a list of users in this group.

Oversight[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Users who are given the oversight flag ('oversight' user group) have access to Special:HideRevision, through which they can permanently hide revisions of pages from all users, and Special:Oversight, where they can view a log of such actions and the content of the hidden revisions. This right is only granted to exceedingly few users who are at least 18 years of age and have identified themselves to the Wikimedia Foundation.

See Special:ListUsers/oversight for a list of users in this group.

CheckUser[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Users who are given the checkuser flag ('checkuser' user group) have access to Special:CheckUser. They are able to view a list of all IP addresses used by a user account to edit the English Wikipedia, a list of all edits made by an IP, or all user accounts that have used an IP address. They may also view a log of such requests. This right is only granted to exceedingly few users who are age 18+ and have identified themselves to the Wikimedia Foundation.

See Special:ListUsers/checkuser for a list of users in this group.

Importers and Transwiki[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Transwiki and Importers are flags which give permissions on Special:Import. This interface allows users to move pages between Wikimedia wikis (for instance, to copy an article written in English on a foreign-language wiki, while preserving full edit history). Although MediaWiki software provides the ability to import articles directly from XML (which may come from any wiki site), this is disabled on en.wikipedia as well as most other Wikimedia projects.

See also the import log, Transwiki log, and Help:Import.

Other flagged accounts[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Bots[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Accounts used by approved bots to make pre-approved edits can be flagged as such. Bot accounts are automated or semi-automated, the nature of their edits is well defined, and they will be quickly blocked if their actions vary from their given tasks, so they need less scrutiny than human edits.

For this reason, contributions from accounts with the bot flag ('bot' user group) are not displayed in recent changes or watchlists to users who have opted to hide bot edits. Minor edits made by bot accounts to user talk pages do not trigger the "you have new messages" banner. Bot accounts can query the API in batches of 5,000 rather than 500.

See Special:ListUsers/bot for a list of users in this group.

Founder[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The 'founder' group was created on the English Wikipedia by developer Tim Starling, without community support, as a unique group for Jimmy Wales. The group gives Wales full access to user rights. As 'local founder actions' are usually of great interest to the local community, and are only relevant to the English Wikipedia, the local 'founder' right also has the benefit of allowing Wales' actions to be visible in the English Wikipedia rights log; actions performed with the global founder bit are not visible in that record, but only on the log at Metawiki.

Researcher[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

The 'researcher' group was created in April 2010 to allow individuals explicitly approved by the Wikimedia Foundation to perform a title search for deleted pages and view deleted history entries but not to view the actual revisions of deleted pages.[୩] Policies governing the access level are under development by the Wikimedia Foundation Research Committee (RCom).

See Special:ListUsers/researcher for a list of users in this group and meta:Research:Special API permissions/Log for further details.

Table[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  • As a function of the Requests for adminship and Requests for Bureaucratship processes, all bureaucrats on the English Wikipedia are also administrators, and so have all the permissions of the 'sysop' user group in addition to those rights from the 'bureaucrat' group. However this is not a requirement of the MediaWiki software; it is technically possible for a user to be a bureaucrat without also being an admin.
  • Deprecated permissions are either no longer assigned to any group, or the group to which they are assigned is no longer populated.


Granted Inherited Denied Revoked Depends Limited
           

Permission
 
Allows user(s) to… Blocked users Unregistered
users
Registered accounts Auto-confirmed
and Confirmed
Bots Administrators Bureaucrats other groups
abusefilter-log view the abuse log                
abusefilter-log-detail view detailed abuse log entries                
abusefilter-view view abuse filters                
abusefilter-revert revert all changes by a given abuse filter                
apihighlimits request API queries in batches of 5,000, rather than 500               Researcher  
autoconfirmed edit semi-protected pages            
autopatrol automatically mark all edits made by the user as patrolled               autopatrolled, Global rollbacker  
bigdelete delete pages with over 5,000 revisions              
steward
block block an IP address, user name, or range of IPs, from editing              
boardvote check IPs and strike out votes during Board elections               boardvote
bot edit without their edits showing up in recent changes                
checkuser see all IP addresses used by a registered user or to show all edits from a given IP address               checkuser
collectionsaveascommunitypage Save books as community page in the book namespace                
collectionsaveasuserpage Save books as user subpage                
createaccount create a new user account for themselves or another user             account creator  
createpage create a new page                
createtalk create a new talk page                
delete delete a page with ≤ 5,000 revisions              
deletedhistory view the history of a deleted page or a user's deleted contributions             Researcher  
deletedtext view the text of deleted revisions                
deleterevision access RevisionDelete tool for viewing, deleting, restoring the text, edit summary, and/or username of a revision                
edit edit any page which is not protected                
editinterface edit the MediaWiki namespace to affect the interface              
edittalk edit their own talk page              
editusercssjs edit .css or .js subpages of other users              
hiderevision permanently hide revisions from public view               oversight
import Import pages from other wikis               Importers and Transwiki importers
importupload import pages from a locally stored XML file               import
ipblockexempt be unaffected by blocks applied to the user's IP address or a range (CIDR) containing it.               Ipblock-exempt
markbotedits mark rollback as bot edits, to keep them out of recent changes               Global rollbacker
minoredit make an edit marked as 'minor'                
abusefilter-modify modify abuse filters               Edit Filter managers
move change the title of a page by moving it                
movefile change the title of a file by moving it               file movers
move-rootuserpages Move root user pages                
move-subpages Move pages with their subpages                
nominornewtalk minor edits by this user to user talk pages do not trigger the "you have new messages" banner                
noratelimit Not be affected by rate limits               account creator, Global rollbacker
override-antispoof blocks the creation of accounts with mixed-script, confusing and similar usernames               account creator
oversight view revisions that have been permanently hidden               oversight
patrol state that they have checked a page that appeared in Special:Newpages                
protect change protection levels, edit and move protected pages              
purge purge a page by adding &action=purge to the URL                
read read pages                
renameuser change the name of an existing account                
reupload overwrite an existing unprotected file                
reupload-own Overwrite existing files uploaded by oneself                
rollback use a special link to more easily revert a bad edit             (Global) rollbacker
sendemail e-mail a user (using Special:EmailUser/username) who have associated an email address with themselves              
skipcaptcha Perform captcha triggering actions without having to go through the captcha              
suppressredirect not create a redirect from the old name when moving a page             Global rollbacker
tboverride Override the title blacklist             account creator
undelete undelete a previously deleted page or specific revisions from it, view deleted revisions              
unwatchedpages view a list of pages which are not on anyone's watchlist              
upload upload a media file                
userrights change the user groups of another user           +/− rollbacker,
+/− Ipblock-exempt
+/− accountcreator
+/− autopatrolled
+/− Edit Filter managers
+/− Confirmed
+/− Filemover
+/− Reviewer
+/− administrator,
+ bureaucrat,
+/− bot
+/− accountcreator,
+/− reviewer,
−Ipblock-exempt
steward, founder
+/− any
writeapi Use of the write API                


Permission Allows user(s) to… Blocked users Unregistered
users
Registered accounts Auto-confirmed
and Confirmed
Bots Administrators Bureaucrats other groups


User access level changes[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

ଛାଞ୍ଚ:User access level changes

Notes[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

  1. MediaWiki default settings are that the 'bureaucrats' group has the userrights flag (giving access to Special:UserRights) and can add or remove any flags. However this can be modified by mw:Manual:$wgAddGroups and mw:Manual:$wgRemoveGroups to restrict adding/removing flags to specified ones. Wikimedia's settings file uses these, and by default bureaucrats can only remove bot flags and add sysop, bureaucrat and bot flags. English Wikipedia, or 'enwiki', settings additionally permit adding accountcreator and removal of ipblock-exempt and accountcreator; which administrators can do anyway, and removal of sysop.
  2. Since August 2011, per Bugzilla: 18390 
  3. The group has access to the browsearchive and deletedhistory rights, as well apihighlimits [୧]

See also[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]

Others: